Agenda 21

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United Nations Conference on Environment & Development

Rio de Janerio, Brazil, 3 to 14 June 1992

AGENDA 21

CONTENTS

Chapter Paragraphs

1. Preamble 1.1 – 1.6

SECTION I. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DIMENSIONS

2. International cooperation to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and related

domestic policies 2.1 – 2.43

3. Combating poverty 3.1 – 3.12

4. Changing consumption patterns 4.1 – 4.27

5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability 5.1 – 5.66

6. Protecting and promoting human health conditions 6.1 – 6.46

7. Promoting sustainable human settlement development 7.1 – 7.80

8. Integrating environment and development in decision-making 8.1 – 8.54

SECTION II. CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF RESOURCES FOR DEVELOPMENT

9. Protection of the atmosphere 9.1 – 9.35

10. Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources 10.1 – 10.18

11. Combating deforestation 11.1 – 11.40

12. Managing fragile ecosystems: combating desertification and drought 12.1 – 12.63

13. Managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development 13.1 – 13.24

14. Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development 14.1 – 14.104

15. Conservation of biological diversity 15.1 – 15.11

16. Environmentally sound management of biotechnology 16.1 – 16.46

17. Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal

areas and the protection, rational use and development of their living resources 17.1 – 17.136

18. Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources: application of integrated approaches to

the development, management and use of water resources 18.1 – 18.90

19. Environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals, including prevention of illegal international

traffic in toxic and dangerous products 19.1 – 19.76

20. Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, in hazardous wastes 20.1 – 20.46

21. Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues 21.1 – 21.49

22. Safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes 22.1 – 22.9

SECTION III. STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF MAJOR GROUPS

23. Preamble 23.1 – 23.4

24. Global action for women towards sustainable and equitable development 24.1 – 24.12

25. Children and youth in sustainable development 25.1 – 25.17

26. Recognizing and strengthening the role of indigenous people and their communities 26.1 – 26.9

27. Strengthening the role of non-governmental organizations: partners for sustainable development 27.1 – 27.13

28. Local authorities’ initiatives in support of Agenda 21 28.1 – 28.7

29. Strengthening the role of workers and their trade unions 29.1 – 29.14

30. Strengthening the role of business and industry 30.1 – 30.30

31. Scientific and technological community 31.1 – 31.12

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32. Strengthening the role of farmers 32.1 – 32.14

SECTION IV. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION

33. Financial resources and mechanisms 33.1 – 33.21

34. Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building 34.1 – 34.29

35. Science for sustainable development 35.1 – 35.25

36. Promoting education, public awareness and training 36.1 – 36.27

37. National mechanisms and international cooperation for capacity-building in developing countries 37.1 – 37.13

38. International institutional arrangements 38.1 – 38.45

39. International legal instruments and mechanisms 39.1 – 39.10

40. Information for decision-making 40.1 – 40.30

* * * * *

* Copyright © United Nations Division for Sustainable Development

* For section I (Social and economic dimensions), see A/CONF.151/26 (Vol. I); for section III (Strengthening

the role of major groups) and section IV (Means of implementation), see A.CONF/151/26 (Vol. III).

* For section II (Conservation and management of resources for development), see A/CONF.151/26 (Vol. II);

for section III (Strengthening the role of major groups) and section IV (Means of implementation), see

A/CONF.151/26 (Vol. III).

* For section I (Social and economic dimensions), see A/CONF.151/26 (Vol. I); for section II (Conservation

and management of resources for development), see A/CONF.151/26 (Vol. II).

Small Island Developing States Network (SIDSnet) has formatted this document for MS-Word from the original version available

for downloading from the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) at:

http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/agenda21.htm. Reproduction and dissemination of the document – in electronic and/or

printed format – is encouraged, provided acknowledgement is made of the role of the United Nations in making it available.

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Agenda 21 – Chapter 1

PREAMBLE

1.1. Humanity stands at a defining moment in history. We are confronted with a perpetuation of disparities

between and within nations, a worsening of poverty, hunger, ill health and illiteracy, and the

continuing deterioration of the ecosystems on which we depend for our well-being. However,

integration of environment and development concerns and greater attention to them will lead to the

fulfilment of basic needs, improved living standards for all, better protected and managed ecosystems

and a safer, more prosperous future. No nation can achieve this on its own; but together we can – in a

global partnership for sustainable development.

1.2. This global partnership must build on the premises of General Assembly resolution 44/228 of 22

December 1989, which was adopted when the nations of the world called for the United Nations

Conference on Environment and Development, and on the acceptance of the need to take a balanced

and integrated approach to environment and development questions.

1.3. Agenda 21 addresses the pressing problems of today and also aims at preparing the world for the

challenges of the next century. It reflects a global consensus and political commitment at the highest

level on development and environment cooperation. Its successful implementation is first and foremost

the responsibility of Governments. National strategies, plans, policies and processes are crucial in

achieving this. International cooperation should support and supplement such national efforts. In this

context, the United Nations system has a key role to play. Other international, regional and subregional

organizations are also called upon to contribute to this effort. The broadest public participation and the

active involvement of the non-governmental organizations and other groups should also be

encouraged.

1.4. The developmental and environmental objectives of Agenda 21 will require a substantial flow of new

and additional financial resources to developing countries, in order to cover the incremental costs for

the actions they have to undertake to deal with global environmental problems and to accelerate

sustainable development. Financial resources are also required for strengthening the capacity of

international institutions for the implementation of Agenda 21. An indicative order-of-magnitude

assessment of costs is included in each of the programme areas. This assessment will need to be

examined and refined by the relevant implementing agencies and organizations.

1.5. In the implementation of the relevant programme areas identified in Agenda 21, special attention

should be given to the particular circumstances facing the economies in transition. It must also be

recognized that these countries are facing unprecedented challenges in transforming their economies,

in some cases in the midst of considerable social and political tension.

1.6. The programme areas that constitute Agenda 21 are described in terms of the basis for action,

objectives, activities and means of implementation. Agenda 21 is a dynamic programme. It will be

carried out by the various actors according to the different situations, capacities and priorities of

countries and regions in full respect of all the principles contained in the Rio Declaration on

Environment and Development. It could evolve over time in the light of changing needs and

circumstances. This process marks the beginning of a new global partnership for sustainable

development.

* * * * *

* When the term “Governments” is used, it will be deemed to include the European Economic Community within its

areas of competence. Throughout Agenda 21 the term “environmentally sound” means “environmentally safe and

sound”, in particular when applied to the terms “energy sources”, “energy supplies”, “energy systems” and “technology”

or “technologies”.

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Agenda 21 – Chapter 2

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO ACCELERATE SUSTAINABLE

DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND RELATED DOMESTIC

POLICIES

2.1. In order to meet the challenges of environment and development, States have decided to establish a

new global partnership. This partnership commits all States to engage in a continuous and constructive

dialogue, inspired by the need to achieve a more efficient and equitable world economy, keeping in

view the increasing interdependence of the community of nations and that sustainable development

should become a priority item on the agenda of the international community. It is recognized that, for

the success of this new partnership, it is important to overcome confrontation and to foster a climate of

genuine cooperation and solidarity. It is equally important to strengthen national and international

policies and multinational cooperation to adapt to the new realities.

2.2. Economic policies of individual countries and international economic relations both have great

relevance to sustainable development. The reactivation and acceleration of development requires both

a dynamic and a supportive international economic environment and determined policies at the

national level. It will be frustrated in the absence of either of these requirements. A supportive external

economic environment is crucial. The development process will not gather momentum if the global

economy lacks dynamism and stability and is beset with uncertainties. Neither will it gather

momentum if the developing countries are weighted down by external indebtedness, if development

finance is inadequate, if barriers restrict access to markets and if commodity prices and the terms of

trade of developing countries remain depressed. The record of the 1980s was essentially negative on

each of these counts and needs to be reversed. The policies and measures needed to create an

international environment that is strongly supportive of national development efforts are thus vital.

International cooperation in this area should be designed to complement and support – not to diminish

or subsume – sound domestic economic policies, in both developed and developing countries, if global

progress towards sustainable development is to be achieved.

2.3. The international economy should provide a supportive international climate for achieving

environment and development goals by:

PROGRAMME AREAS

A. Promoting sustainable development through trade Basis for action

2.5. An open, equitable, secure, non-discriminatory and predictable multilateral trading system that is

consistent with the goals of sustainable development and leads to the optimal distribution of global

production in accordance with comparative advantage is of benefit to all trading partners. Moreover,

improved market access for developing countries’ exports in conjunction with sound macroeconomic

and environmental policies would have a positive environmental impact and therefore make an

important contribution towards sustainable development.

2.6. Experience has shown that sustainable development requires a commitment to sound economic

policies and management, an effective and predictable public administration, the integration of

environmental concerns into decision-making and progress towards democratic government, in the

light of country-specific conditions, which allows for full participation of all parties concerned. These

attributes are essential for the fulfillment of the policy directions and objectives listed below.

2.7. The commodity sector dominates the economies of many developing countries in terms of production,

employment and export earnings. An important feature of the world commodity economy in the 1980s

was the prevalence of very low and declining real prices for most commodities in international markets

and a resulting substantial contraction in commodity export earnings for many producing countries.

The ability of those countries to mobilize, through international trade, the resources needed to finance

investments required for sustainable development may be impaired by this development and by tariff

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and non-tariff impediments, including tariff escalation, limiting their access to export markets. The

removal of existing distortions in international trade is essential. In particular, the achievement of this

objective requires that there be substantial and progressive reduction in the support and protection of

agriculture – covering internal regimes, market access and export subsidies – as well as of industry and

other sectors, in order to avoid inflicting large losses on the more efficient producers, especially in

developing countries. Thus, in agriculture, industry and other sectors, there is scope for initiatives

aimed at trade liberalization and at policies to make production more responsive to environment and

development needs. Trade liberalization should therefore be pursued on a global basis across economic

sectors so as to contribute to sustainable develop ment.

2.8. The international trading environment has been affected by a number of developments that have

created new challenges and opportunities and have made multilateral economic cooperation of even

greater importance. World trade has continued to grow faster than world output in recent years.

However, the expansion of world trade has been unevenly spread, and only a limited number of

developing countries have been capable of achieving appreciable growth in their exports. Protectionist

pressures and unilateral policy actions continue to endanger the functioning of an open multilateral

trading system, affecting particularly the export interests of developing countries. Economic

integration processes have intensified in recent years and should impart dynamism to global trade and

enhance the trade and development possibilities for developing countries. In recent years, a growing

number of these countries have adopted courageous policy reforms involving ambitious autonomous

trade liberalization, while far-reaching reforms and profound restructuring processes are taking place

in Central and Eastern European countries, paving the way for their integration into the world economy

and the international trading system. Increased attention is being devoted to enhancing the role of

enterprises and promoting competitive markets through adoption of competitive policies. The GSP has

proved to be a useful trade policy instrument, although its objectives will have to be fulfilled, and trade

facilitation strategies relating to electronic data interchange (EDI) have been effective in improving the

trading efficiency of the public and private sectors. The interactions between environment policies and

trade issues are manifold and have not yet been fully assessed. An early, balanced, comprehensive and

successful outcome of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations would bring about further

liberalization and expansion of world trade, enhance the trade and development possibilities of

developing countries and provide greater security and predictability to the international trading system.

Objectives

2.9. In the years ahead, and taking into account the results of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade

negotiations, Governments should continue to strive to meet the following objectives:

a. To promote an open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system that

will enable all countries – in particular, the developing countries – to improve their

economic structures and improve the standard of living of their populations through

sustained economic development;

b. To improve access to markets for exports of developing countries;

c. To improve the functioning of commodity markets and achieve sound, compatible and

consistent commodity policies at national and international levels with a view to

optimizing the contribution of the commodity sector to sustainable development, taking

into account environmental considerations;

d. To promote and support policies, domestic and international, that make economic growth

and environmental protection mutually supportive.

Activities

(a) International and regional cooperation and coordination Promoting an international trading

system that takes account of the needs of developing countries

2.10. Accordingly, the international community should:

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a. Halt and reverse protectionism in order to bring about further liberalization and

expansion of world trade, to the benefit of all countries, in particular the developing

countries;

b. Provide for an equitable, secure, non-discriminatory and predictable international

trading system;

c. Facilitate, in a timely way, the integration of all countries into the world economy

and the international trading system;

d. Ensure that environment and trade policies are mutually supportive, with a view to

achieving sustainable development;

e. Strengthen the international trade policies system through an early, balanced,

comprehensive and successful outcome of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade

negotiations.

2.11. The international community should aim at finding ways and means of achieving a better

functioning and enhanced transparency of commodity markets, greater diversification of the

commodity sector in developing economies within a macroeconomic framework that takes into

consideration a country’s economic structure, resource endowments and market opportunities, and

better management of natural resources that takes into account the necessities of sustainable

development.

2.12. Therefore, all countries should implement previous commitments to halt and reverse protectionism

and further expand market access, particularly in areas of interest to developing countries. This

improvement of market access will be facilitated by appropriate structural adjustment in developed

countries. Developing countries should continue the trade-policy reforms and structural adjustment

they have undertaken. It is thus urgent to achieve an improvement in market access conditions for

commodities, notably through the progressive removal of barriers that restrict imports, particularly

from developing countries, of commodity products in primary and processed forms, as well as the

substantial and progressive reduction of types of support that induce uncompetitive production, such as

production and export subsidies. (b) Management related activities Developing domestic policies that

maximize the benefits of trade liberalization for sustainable development

2.13. For developing countries to benefit from the liberalization of trading systems, they should

implement the following policies, as appropriate:

a. Create a domestic environment supportive of an optimal balance between

production for the domestic and export markets and remove biases against

exports and discourage inefficient import-substitution;

b. Promote the policy framework and the infrastructure required to improve

the efficiency of export and import trade as well as the functioning of

domestic markets.

2.14. The following policies should be adopted by developing countries with respect to commodities

consistent with market efficiency:

a. Expand processing, distribution and imp rove marketing practices and the

competitiveness of the commodity sector;

b. Diversify in order to reduce dependence on commodity exports;

c. Reflect efficient and sustainable use of factors of production in the

formation of commodity prices, including the reflection of environmental,

social and resources costs.

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(c) Data and information

Encouraging data collection and research

2.15. GATT, UNCTAD and other relevant institutions should continue to collect appropriate trade data

and information. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is requested to strengthen the Trade

Control Measures Information System managed by UNCTAD.

Improving international cooperation in commodity trade and the diversification of the sector

2.16. With regard to commodity trade, Governments should, directly or through appropriate

international organizations, where appropriate:

a. Seek optimal functioning of commodity markets, inter alia,

through improved market transparency involving exchanges of

views and information on investment plans, prospects and markets

for individual commodities. Substantive negotiations between

producers and consumers should be pursued with a view to

achieving viable and more efficient international agreements that

take into account market trends, or arrangements, as well as study

groups. In this regard, particular attention should be paid to the

agreements on cocoa, coffee, sugar and tropical timber. The

importance of international commodity agreements and

arrangements is underlined. Occupational health and safety

matters, technology transfer and services associated with the

production, marketing and promotion of commodities, as well as

environmental considerations, should be taken into account;

b. Continue to apply compensation mechanisms for shortfalls in

commodity export earnings of developing countries in order to

encourage diversification efforts;

c. Provide assistance to developing countries upon request in the

design and implementation of commodity policies and the

gathering and utilization of information on commodity markets;

d. Support the efforts of developing countries to promote the policy

framework and infrastructure required to improve the efficiency of

export and import trade;

e. Support the diversification initiatives of the developing countries at

the national, regional and international levels.

Means of implementation

a. Financing and cost evaluation

2.17. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities in this programme area to be about $8.8 billion from the international

community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only

and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are

non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments

decide upon for implementation.

b. Capacity-building 2.18. The above-mentioned technical cooperation activities aim at strengthening

national capabilities for design and implementation of commodity policy, use and management of

national resources and the gathering and utilization of information on commodity markets.

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B. Making trade and environment mutually supportive Basis for action

2.19. Environment and trade policies should be mutually supportive. An open, multilateral trading

system makes possible a more efficient allocation and use of resources and thereby contributes to an

increase in production and incomes and to lessening demands on the environment. It thus provides

additional resources needed for economic growth and development and improved environmental

protection. A sound environment, on the other hand, provides the ecological and other resources

needed to sustain growth and underpin a continuing expansion of trade. An open, multilateral trading

system, supported by the adoption of sound environmental policies, would have a positive impact on

the environment and contribute to sustainable development.

2.20. International cooperation in the environmental field is growing, and in a number of cases trade

provisions in multilateral environment agreements have played a role in tackling global environmental

challenges. Trade measures have thus been used in certain specific instances, where considered

necessary, to enhance the effectiveness of environmental regulations for the protection of the

environment. Such regulations should address the root causes of environmental degradation so as not

to result in unjustified restrictions on trade. The challenge is to ensure that trade and environment

policies are consistent and reinforce the process of sustainable development. However, account should

be taken of the fact that environmental standards valid for developed countries may have unwarranted

social and economic costs in developing countries.

Objectives

2.21. Governments should strive to meet the following objectives, through relevant multilateral forums,

including GATT, UNCTAD and other international organizations:

a. To make international trade and environment policies mutually supportive in favour of

sustainable development;

b. To clarify the role of GATT, UNCTAD and other international organizations in dealing

with trade and environment-related issues, including, where relevant, conciliation

procedure and dispute settlement;

c. To encourage international productivity and competitiveness and encourage a

constructive role on the part of industry in dealing with environment and development

issues.

Activities

Developing an environment/trade and development agenda

2.22. Governments should encourage GATT, UNCTAD and other relevant international and regional

economic institutions to examine, in accordance with their respective mandates and competences, the

following propositions and principles:

a. Elaborate adequate studies for the better understanding of the relationship between trade

and environment for the promotion of sustainable development;

b. Promote a dialogue between trade, development and environment communities;

c. In those cases when trade measures related to environment are used, ensure transparency

and compatibility with international obligations;

d. Deal with the root causes of environment and development problems in a manner that

avoids the adoption of environmental measures resulting in unjustified restrictions on

trade;

e. Seek to avoid the use of trade restrictions or distortions as a means to offset differences in

cost arising from differences in environmental standards and regulations, since their

application could lead to trade distortions and increase protectionist tendencies;

f. Ensure that environment-related regulations or standards, including those related to

health and safety standards, do not constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable

discrimination or a disguised restriction on trade;

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g. Ensure that special factors affecting environment and trade policies in t he developing

countries are borne in mind in the application of environmental standards, as well as in

the use of any trade measures. It is worth noting that standards that are valid in the most

advanced countries may be inappropriate and of unwarranted social cost for the

developing countries;

h. Encourage participation of developing countries in multilateral agreements through such

mechanisms as special transitional rules;

i. Avoid unilateral actions to deal with environmental challenges outside the jurisdiction of

the importing country. Environmental measures addressing transborder or global

environmental problems should, as far as possible, be based on an international

consensus. Domestic measures targeted to achieve certain environmental objectives may

need trade measures to render them effective. Should trade policy measures be found

necessary for the enforcement of environmental policies, certain principles and rules

should apply. These could include, inter alia, the principle of non-discrimination; the

principle that the trade measure chosen should be the least trade-restrictive necessary to

achieve the objectives; an obligation to ensure transparency in the use of trade measures

related to the environment and to provide adequate notification of national regulations;

and the need to give consideration to the special conditions and developmental

requirements of developing countries as they move towards internationally agreed

environmental objectives;

j. Develop more precision, where necessary, and clarify the relationship between GATT

provisions and some of the multilateral measures adopted in the environment area;

k. Ensure public input in the formation, negotiation and implementation of trade policies as

a means of fostering increased transparency in the light of country-specific conditions;

l. Ensure that environmental policies provide the appropriate legal and institutional

framework to respond to new needs for the protection of the environment that may result

from changes in production and trade specialization.

C. Providing adequate financial resources to developing countries

Basis for action

2.23. Investment is critical to the ability of developing countries to achieve needed economic growth to

improve the welfare of their populations and to meet their basic needs in a sustainable manner, all

without deteriorating or depleting the resource base that underpins development. Sustainable

development requires increased investment, for which domestic and external financial resources are

needed. Foreign private investment and the return of flight capital, which depend on a healthy

investment climate, are an important source of financial resources. Many developing countries have

experienced a decade-long situation of negative net transfer of financial resources, during which their

financial receipts were exceeded by payments they had to make, in particular for debt-servicing. As a

result, domestically mobilized resources had to be transferred abroad instead of being invested locally

in order to promote sustainable economic development.

2.24. For many developing countries, the reactivation of development will not take place without an

early and durable solution to the problems of external indebtedness, taking into account the fact that,

for many developing countries, external debt burdens are a significant problem. The burden of debt- service payments on those countries has imposed severe constraints on their ability to accelerate

growth and eradicate poverty and has led to a contraction in imports, investment and consumption.

External indebtedness has emerged as a main factor in the economic stalemate in the developing

countries. Continued vigorous implementation of the evolving international debt strategy is aimed at

restoring debtor countries’ external financial viability, and the resumption of their growth and

development would assist in achieving sustainable growth and development. In this context, additional

financial resources in favour of developing countries and the efficient utilization of such resources are

essential.

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Objectives

2.25. The specific requirements for the implementation of the sectoral and cross-sectoral programmes

included in Agenda 21 are dealt with in the relevant programme areas and in chapter 33 (Financial

resources and mechanisms).

Activities

(a) Meeting international targets of official development assistance funding

2.26. As discussed in chapter 33, new and additional resources should be provided to support Agenda

21 programmes.

(b) Addressing the debt issue

2.27. In regard to the external debt incurred with commercial banks, the progress being made under the

strengthened debt strategy is recognized and a more rapid implementation of this strategy is

encouraged. Some countries have already benefited from the combination of sound adjustment policies

and commercial bank debt reduction or equivalent measures. The international community

encourages:

a. Other countries with heavy debts to banks to negotiate similar commercial bank debt

reduction with their creditors;

b. The parties to such a negotiation to take due account of both the medium-term debt

reduction and new money requirements of the debtor country;

c. Multilateral institutions actively engaged in the strengthened international debt strategy to

continue to support debt-reduction packages related to commercial bank debt with a view

to ensuring that the magnitude of such financing is consonant with the evolving debt

strategy;

d. Creditor banks to participate in debt and debt-service reduction;

e. Strengthened policies to attract direct investment, avoid unsustainable levels of debt and

foster the return of flight capital.

2.28. With regard to debt owed to official bilateral creditors, the recent measures taken by the Paris

Club with regard to more generous terms of relief to the poorest most indebted countries are

welcomed. Ongoing efforts to implement these “Trinidad terms” measures in a manner commensurate

with the payments capacity of those countries and in a way that gives additional support to their

economic reform efforts are welcomed. The substantial bilateral debt reduction undertaken by some

creditor countries is also welcomed, and others which are in a position to do so are encouraged to take

similar action.

2.29. The actions of low-income countries with substantial debt burdens which continue, at great cost,

to service their debt and safeguard their creditworthiness are commended. Particular attention should

be paid to their resource needs. Other debt-distressed developing countries which are making great

efforts to continue to service their debt and meet their external financial obligations also deserve due

attention.

2.30. In connection with multilateral debt, it is urged that serious attention be given to continuing to

work towards growth-oriented solutions to the problem of developing countries with serious debt- servicing problems, including those whose debt is mainly to official creditors or to multilateral

financial institutions. Particularly in the case of low-income countries in the process of economic

reform, the support of the multilateral financial institutions in the form of new disbursements and the

use of their concessional funds is welcomed. The use of support groups should be continued in

providing resources to clear arrears of countries embarking upon vigorous economic reform

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programmes supported by IMF and t he World Bank. Measures by the multilateral financial institutions

such as the refinancing of interest on non-concessional loans with IDA reflows – “fifth dimension” –

are noted with appreciation.

Means of implementation

Financing and cost evaluation*

D. Encouraging economic policies conducive to sustainable development

Basis for action

2.31. The unfavourable external environment facing developing countries makes domestic resource

mobilization and efficient allocation and utilization of domestically mobilized resources all the more

important for the promotion of sustainable development. In a number of countries, policies are

necessary to correct misdirected public spending, large budget deficits and other macroeconomic

imbalances, restrictive policies and distortions in the areas of exchange rates, investment and finance,

and obstacles to entrepreneurship. In developed countries, continuing policy reform and adjustment,

including appropriate savings rates, would help generate resources to support the transition to

sustainable development both domestically and in developing countries.

* * * * *

* See chap. 33 (Financial resources and mechanisms).

* * * * *

2.32. Good management that fosters the association of effective, efficient, honest, equitable and

accountable public administration with individual rights and opportunities is an essential element for

sustainable, broadly based development and sound economic performance at all development levels.

All countries should increase their efforts to eradicate mismanagement of public and private affairs,

including corruption, taking into account the factors responsible for, and agents involved in, this

phenomenon.

2.33. Many indebted developing countries are undergoing structural adjustment programmes relating to

debt rescheduling or new loans. While such programmes are necessary for improving the balance in

fiscal budgets and balance-of-payments accounts, in some cases they have resulted in adverse social

and environmental effects, such as cuts in allocations for health care, education and environmental

protection. It is important to ensure that structural adjustment programmes do not have negative

impacts on the environment and social development so that such programmes can be more in line with

the objectives of sustainable development.

Objectives

2.34. It is necessary to establish, in the light of the country-specific conditions, economic policy reforms

that promote the efficient planning and utilization of resources for sustainable development through

sound economic and social policies, foster entrepreneurship and the incorporation of social and

environmental costs in resource pricing, and remove sources of distortion in the area of trade and

investment.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

Promoting sound economic policies

2.35. The industrialized countries and other countries in a position to do so should strengthen their efforts:

a. To encourage a stable and predictable international economic environment, particularly with

regard to monetary stability, real rates of interest and fluctuations in key exchange rates;

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b. To stimulate savings and reduce fiscal deficits;

c. To ensure that the processes of policy coordination take into account the interests and concerns of

the developing countries, including the need to promote positive action to support the efforts of

the least developed countries to halt their marginalization in the world economy;

d. To undertake appropriate national macroeconomic and structural policies aimed at promoting non- inflationary growth, narrowing their major external imbalances and increasing the adjustment

capacity of their economies.

2.36. Developing countries should consider strengthening their efforts to implement sound economic

policies:

a. That maintain the monetary and fiscal discipline required to promote price stability and external

balance;

b. That result in realistic exchange rates;

c. That raise domestic savings and investment, as well as improve returns to investment.

2.37. More specifically, all countries should develop policies that improve efficiency in the allocation of

resources and take full advantage of the opportunities offered by the changing global economic

environment. In particular, wherever appropriate, and taking into account national strategies and

objectives, countries should:

a. Remove the barriers to progress caused by bureaucratic inefficiencies, administrative strains,

unnecessary controls and the neglect of market conditions;

b. Promote transparency in administration and decision-making;

c. Encourage the private sector and foster entrepreneurship by improving institutional facilities for

enterprise creation and market entry. The essential objective would be to simplify or remove the

restrictions, regulations and formalities that make it more complicated, costly and time-consuming

to set up and operate enterprises in many developing countries;

d. Promote and support the investment and infrastructure required for sustainable economic growth

and diversification on an environmentally sound and sustainable basis;

e. Provide scope for appropriate economic instruments, including market mechanisms, in harmony

with the objectives of sustainable development and fulfillment of basic needs;

f. Promote the operation of effective tax systems and financial sectors;

g. Provide opportunities for small-scale enterprises, both farm and non-farm, and for the indigenous

population and local communities to contribute fully to the attainment of sustainable development;

h. Remove biases against exports and in favor of inefficient import substitution and establish

policies that allow them to benefit fully from the flows of foreign investment, within the

framework of national, social, economic and developmental goals;

i. Promote the creation of a domestic economic environment supportive of an optimal balance

between production for the domestic and export markets.

(b) International and regional cooperation and coordination

2.38. Governments of developed countries and those of other countries in a position to do so should,

directly or through appropriate international and regional organizations and international lending

institutions, enhance their efforts to provide developing countries with increased technical assistance

for the following:

a. Capacity-building in the nation’s design and implementation of economic policies, upon request;

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b. Design and operation of efficient tax systems, accounting systems and financial sectors;

(c) Promotion of entrepreneurship.

2.39. International financial and development institutions should further review their policies and

programmes in the light of the objective of sustainable development.

2.40. Stronger economic cooperation among developing countries has long been accepted as an

important component of efforts to promote economic growth and technological capabilities and to

accelerate development in the developing world. Therefore, the efforts of the developing countries to

promote economic cooperation among themselves should be enhanced and continue to be supported

by the international community.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

2.41. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities in this programme area to be about $50 million from the international

community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates

only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that

are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes

Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Capacity-building

2.42. The above-mentioned policy changes in developing countries involve substantial national efforts

for capacity-building in the areas of public administration, central banking, tax administration, savings

institutions and financial markets.

2.43. Particular efforts in the implementation of the four programme areas identified in this chapter are

warranted in view of the especially acute environmental and developmental problems of the least

developed countries.

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Agenda 21 – Chapter 3

COMBATING POVERTY

PROGRAMME AREA

Enabling the poor to achieve sustainable livelihoods

Basis for action

3.1. Poverty is a complex multidimensional problem with origins in both the national and international

domains. No uniform solution can be found for global application. Rather, country-specific

programmes to tackle poverty and international efforts supporting national efforts, as well as the

parallel process of creating a supportive international environment, are crucial for a solution to this

problem. The eradication of poverty and hunger, greater equity in income distribution and human

resource development remain major challenges everywhere. The struggle against poverty is the shared

responsibility of all countries.

3.2. While managing resources sustainably, an environmental policy that focuses mainly on the

conservation and protection of resources must take due account of those who depend on the resources

for their livelihoods. Otherwise it could have an adverse impact both on poverty and on chances for

long-term success in resource and environmental conservation. Equally, a development policy that

focuses mainly on increasing the production of goods without addressing the sustainability of the

resources on which production is based will sooner or later run into declining productivity, which

could also have an adverse impact on poverty. A specific anti-poverty strategy is therefore one of the

basic conditions for ensuring sustainable development. An effective strategy for tackling the problems

of poverty, development and environment simultaneously should begin by focusing on resources,

production and people and should cover demographic issues, enhanced health care and education, the

rights of women, the role of youth and of indigenous people and local communities and a democratic

participation process in association with improved governance.

3.3. Integral to such action is, together with international support, the promotion of economic growth in

developing countries that is both sustained and sustainable and direct action in eradicating poverty by

strengthening employment and income-generating programmes.

Objectives

3.4. The long-term objective of enabling all people to achieve sustainable livelihoods should provide an

integrating factor that allows policies to address issues of development, sustainable resource

management and poverty eradication simultaneously. The objectives of this programme area are:

a. To provide all persons urgently with the opportunity to earn a sustainable livelihood;

b. To implement policies and strategies that promote adequate levels of funding and focus on

integrated human development policies, including income generation, increased local control

of resources, local institution-strengthening and capacity-building and greater involvement of

non-governmental organizations and local levels of government as delivery mechanisms;

c. To develop for all poverty-stricken areas integrated strategies and programmes of sound and

sustainable management of the environment, resource mobilization, poverty eradication and

alleviation, employment and income generation;

d. To create a focus in national development plans and budgets on investment in human capital,

with special policies and programmes directed at rural areas, the urban poor, women and

children. Activities

3.5. Activities that will contribute to the integrated promotion of sustainable livelihoods and environmental

protection cover a variety of sectoral interventions involving a range of actors, from local to global,

and are essential at every level, especially the community and local levels. Enabling actions will be

necessary at the national and international levels, taking full account of regional and subregional

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conditions to support a locally driven and country-specific approach. In general design, the

programmes should:

a. Focus on the empowerment of local and community groups through the principle of

delegating authority, accountability and resources to the most appropriate level to ensure that

the programme will be geographically and ecologically specific;

b. Contain immediate measures to enable those groups to alleviate poverty and to develop

sustainability;

c. Contain a long-term strategy aimed at establishing the best possible conditions for sustainable

local, regional and national development that would eliminate poverty and reduce the

inequalities between various population groups. It should assist the most disadvantaged

groups – in particular, women, children and youth within those groups – and refugees. The

groups will include poor smallholders, pastoralists, artisans, fishing communities, landless

people, indigenous communities, migrants and the urban informal sector.

3.6. The focus here is on specific cross-cutting measures – in particular, in the areas of basic education,

primary/maternal health care, and the advancement of women.

(a) Empowering communities

3.7. Sustainable development must be achieved at every level of society. Peoples’ organizations, women’s

groups and non-governmental organizations are important sources of innovation and action at the local

level and have a strong interest and proven ability to promote sustainable livelihoods. Governments, in

cooperation with appropriate international and non-governmental organizations, should support a

community-driven approach to sustainability, which would include, inter alia:

a. Empowering women through full participation in decision-making;

b. Respecting the cultural integrity and the rights of indigenous people and their communities;

c. Promoting or establishing grass-roots mechanisms to allow for the sharing of experience and

knowledge between communities;

d. Giving communities a large measure of participation in the sustainable management and

protection of the local natural resources in order to enhance their productive capacity;

e. Establishing a network of community-based learning centres for capacity-building and

sustainable development.

(b) Management-related activities

3.8. Governments, with the assistance of and in cooperation with appropriate international, non- governmental and local community organizations, should establish measures that will directly or

indirectly:

a. Generate remunerative employment and productive occupational opportunities compatible

with country-specific factor endowments, on a scale sufficient to take care of prospective

increases in the labour force and to cover backlogs;

b. With international support, where necessary, develop adequate infrastructure, marketing

systems, technology systems, credit systems and the like and the human resources needed to

support the above actions and to achieve a widening of options for resource-poor people. High

priority should be given to basic education and professional training;

c. Provide substantial increases in economically efficient resource productivity and measures to

ensure that the local population benefits in adequate measure from resource use;

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d. Empower community organizations and people to enable them to achieve sustainable

livelihoods;

e. Set up an effective primary health care and maternal health care system accessible to all;

f. Consider strengthening/developing legal frameworks for land management, access to land

resources and land ownership – in particular, for women – and for the protection of tenants;

g. Rehabilitate degraded resources, to the extent practicable, and introduce policy measures to

promote sustainable use of resources for basic human needs;

h. Establish new community-based mechanisms and strengthen existing mechanisms to enable

communities to gain sustained access to resources needed by the poor to overcome their

poverty;

i. Implement mechanisms for popular participation – particularly by poor people, especially

women – in local community groups, to promote sustainable development;

j. Implement, as a matter of urgency, in accordance with country-specific conditions and legal

systems, measures to ensure that women and men have the same right to decide freely and

responsibly on the number and spacing of their children and have access to the information,

education and means, as appropriate, to enable them to exercise this right in keep ing with

their freedom, dignity and personally held values, taking into account ethical and cultural

considerations. Governments should take active steps to implement programmes to establish

and strengthen preventive and curative health facilities, which include women-centred,

women-managed, safe and effective reproductive health care and affordable, accessible

services, as appropriate, for the responsible planning of family size, in keeping with freedom,

dignity and personally held values, taking into account ethical and cultural considerations.

Programmes should focus on providing comprehensive health care, including pre-natal care,

education and information on health and responsible parenthood and should provide the

opportunity for all women to breast-feed fully, at least during the first four months post- partum. Programmes should fully support women’s productive and reproductive roles and

well-being, with special attention to the need for providing equal and improved health care for

all children and the need to reduce the risk of maternal and child mortality and sickness;

k. Adopt integrated policies aiming at sustainability in the management of urban centres;

l. Undertake activities aimed at the promotion of food security and, where appropriate, food

self-sufficiency within the context of sustainable agriculture;

m. Support research on and integration of traditional methods of production that have been

shown to be environmentally sustainable;

n. Actively seek to recognize and integrate informal-sector activities into the economy by

removing regulations and hindrances that discriminate against activities in those sectors;

o. Consider making available lines of credit and other facilities for the informal sector and

improved access to land for the landless poor so that they can acquire the means of production

and reliable access to natural resources. In many instances special considerations for women

are required. Strict feasibility appraisals are needed for borrowers to avoid debt crises;

p. Provide the poor with access to fresh water and sanitation;

q. Provide the poor with access to primary education.

(c) Data, information and evaluation

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3.9. Governments should improve the collection of information on target groups and target areas in order

to facilitate the design of focused programmes and activities, consistent with the target-group needs

and aspirations. Evaluation of such programmes should be gender-specific, since women are a

particularly disadvantaged group.

(d) International and regional cooperation and coordination

3.10. The United Nations system, through its relevant organs, organizations and bodies, in cooperation

with Member States and with appropriate international and non-governmental organizations, should

make poverty alleviation a major priority and should:

a. Assist Governments, when requested, in the formulation and implementation of national

action programmes on poverty alleviation and sustainable development. Action-oriented

activities of relevance to the above objectives, such as poverty eradication, projects and

programmes supplemented where relevant by food aid, and support and special emphasis on

employment and income generation, should be given particular attention in this regard;

b. Promote technical cooperation among developing countries for poverty eradication activities;

c. Strengthen existing structures in the United Nations system for coordination of action relating

to poverty eradication, including the establishment of a focal point for information exchange

and the formulation and implementation of replicable pilot projects to combat poverty;

d. In the follow-up of the implementation of Agenda 21, give high priority to the review of the

progress made in eradicating poverty;

e. Examine the international economic framework, including resource flows and structural

adjustment programmes, to ensure that social and environmental concerns are addressed, and

in this connection, conduct a review of the policies of international organizations, bodies and

agencies, including financial institutions, to ensure the continued provision of basic services

to the poor and needy;

f. Promote international cooperation to address the root causes of poverty. The development

process will not gather momentum if developing countries are weighted down by external

indebtedness, if development finance is inadequate, if barriers restrict access to markets and if

commodity prices and the terms of trade in developing countries remain depressed.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

3.11. The secretariat of the Conference has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $30 billion, including about $15 billion

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. This estimate overlaps

estimates in other parts of Agenda 21. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non- concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide

upon for implementation.

(b) Capacity-building

3.12. National capacity-building for implementation of the above activities is crucial and should be

given high priority. It is particularly important to focus capacity-building at the local community level

in order to support a community-driven approach to sustainability and to establish and strengthen

mechanisms to allow sharing of experience and knowledge between community groups at national and

international levels. Requirements for such activities are considerable and are related to the various

relevant sectors of Agenda 21 calling for requisite international, financial and technological support.

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Agenda 21 – Chapter 4

CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

4.1. This chapter contains the following programme areas:

a. Focusing on unsustainable patterns of production and consumption;

b. Developing national policies and strategies to encourage changes in unsustainable

consumption patterns.

4.2. Since the issue of changing consumption patterns is very broad, it is addressed in several parts of

Agenda 21, notably those dealing with energy, transportation and wastes, and in the chapters on

economic instruments and the transfer of technology. The present chapter should also be read in

conjunction with chapter 5 (Demographic dynamics and sustainability).

PROGRAMME AREAS

A. Focusing on unsustainable patterns of production and consumption

Basis for action

4.3. Poverty and environmental degradation are closely interrelated. While poverty results in certain kinds

of environmental stress, the major cause of the continued deterioration of the global environment is the

unsustainable pattern of consumption and production, particularly in industrialized countries, which is

a matter of grave concern, aggravating poverty and imbalances.

4.4. Measures to be undertaken at the international level for the protection and enhancement of the

environment must take fully into account the current imbalances in the global patterns of consumption

and production.

4.5. Special attention should be paid to the demand for natural resources generated by unsustainable

consumption and to the efficient use of those resources consistent with the goal of minimizing

depletion and reducing pollution. Although consumption patterns are very high in certain parts of the

world, the basic consumer needs of a large section of humanity are not being met. This results in

excessive demands and unsustainable lifestyles among the richer segments, which place immense

stress on the environment. The poorer segments, meanwhile, are unable to meet food, health care,

shelter and educational needs. Changing consumption patterns will require a multipronged strategy

focusing on demand, meeting the basic needs of the poor, and reducing wastage and the use of finite

resources in the production process.

4.6. Growing recognition of the importance of addressing consumption has also not yet been matched by

an understanding of its implications. Some economists are questioning traditional concepts of

economic growth and underlining the importance of pursuing economic objectives that take account of

the full value of natural resource capital. More needs to be known about the role of consumption in

relation to economic growth and population dynamics in order to formulate coherent international and

national policies.

Objectives

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4.7. Action is needed to meet the following broad objectives:

a. To promote patterns of consumption and production that reduce environmental stress and will

meet the basic needs of humanity;

b. To develop a better understanding of the role of consumption and how to bring about more

sustainable consumption patterns.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

Adopting an international approach to achieving sustainable consumption patterns

4.8. In principle, countries should be guided by the following basic objectives in their efforts to address

consumption and lifestyles in the context of environment and development:

a. All countries should strive to promote sustainable consumption patterns;

b. Developed countries should take the lead in achieving sustainable consumption patterns;

c. Developing countries should seek to achieve sustainable consumption patterns in their

development process, guaranteeing the provision of basic needs for the poor, while

avoiding those unsustainable patterns, particularly in industrialized countries, generally

recognized as unduly hazardous to the environment, inefficient and wasteful, in their

development processes. This requires enhanced technological and other assistance from

industrialized countries.

4.9. In the follow-up of the implementation of Agenda 21 the review of progress made in achieving

sustainable consumption patterns should be given high priority.

(b) Data and information

Undertaking research on consumption

4.10. In order to support this broad strategy, Governments, and/or private research and policy institutes,

with the assistance of regional and international economic and environmental organizations, should

make a concerted effort to:

a. Expand or promote databases on production and consumption and develop methodologies

for analysing them;

b. Assess the relationship between production and consumption, environment, technological

adaptation and innovation, economic growth and development, and demographic factors;

c. Examine the impact of ongoing changes in the structure of modern industrial economies

away from material-intensive economic growth;

d. Consider how economies can grow and prosper while reducing the use of energy and

materials and the production of harmful materials;

e. Identify balanced patterns of consumption worldwide which the Earth can support in the

long term.

Developing new concepts of sustainable economic growth and prosperity

4.11. Consideration should also be given to the present concepts of economic growth and the need for

new concepts of wealth and prosperity which allow higher standards of living through changed

lifestyles and are less dependent on the Earth’s finite resources and more in harmony with the Earth’s

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carrying capacity. This should be reflected in the evolution of new systems of national accounts and

other indicators of sustainable development.

(c) International cooperation and coordination

4.12. While international review processes exist for examining economic, development and

demographic factors, more attention needs to be paid to issues related to consumption and production

patterns and sustainable lifestyles and environment.

4.13. In the follow-up of the implementation of Agenda 21, reviewing the role and impact of

unsustainable production and consumption patterns and lifestyles and their relation to sustainable

development should be given high priority.

Financing and cost evaluation

4.14. The Conference secretariat has estimated that implementation of this programme is not likely to

require significant new financial resources.

B. Developing national policies and strategies to encourage changes in unsustainable consumption

patterns

Basis for action

4.15. Achieving the goals of environmental quality and sustainable development will require efficiency

in production and changes in consumption patterns in order to emphasize optimization of resource use

and minimization of waste. In many instances, this will require reorientation of existing production

and consumption patterns that have developed in industrial societies and are in turn emulated in much

of the world.

4.16. Progress can be made by strengthening positive trends and directions that are emerging, as part of

a process aimed at achieving significant changes in the consumption patterns of industries,

Governments, households and individuals.

Objectives

4.17. In the years ahead, Governments, working with appropriate organizations, should strive to meet

the following broad objectives:

a. To promote efficiency in production processes and reduce wasteful consumption in the

process of economic growth, taking into account the development needs of developing

countries;

b. To develop a domestic policy framework that will encourage a shift to more sustainable

patterns of production and consumption;

c. To reinforce both values that encourage sustainable production and consumption patterns

and policies that encourage the transfer of environmentally sound technologies to

developing countries.

Activities

(a) Encouraging greater efficiency in the use of energy and resources

4.18. Reducing the amount of energy and materials used per unit in the production of goods and

services can contribute both to the alleviation of environmental stress and to greater economic and

industrial productivity and competitiveness. Governments, in cooperation with industry, should

therefore intensify efforts to use energy and resources in an economically efficient and

environmentally sound manner by:

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a. Encouraging the dissemination of existing environmentally sound technologies;

b. Promoting research and development in environmentally sound technologies;

c. Assisting developing countries to use these technologies efficiently and to develop

technologies suited to their particular circumstances;

d. Encouraging the environmentally sound use of new and renewable sources of

energy;

e. Encouraging the environmentally sound and sustainable use of renewable natural

resources.

(b) Minimizing the generation of wastes

4.19. At the same time, society needs to develop effective ways of dealing with the problem of

disposing of mounting levels of waste products and materials. Governments, together with industry,

households and the public, should make a concerted effort to reduce the generation of wastes and

waste products by:

a. Encouraging recycling in industrial processes and at the consumed level;

b. Reducing wasteful packaging of products;

c. Encouraging the introduction of more environmentally sound products.

(c) Assisting individuals and households to make environmentally sound purchasing decisions

4.20. The recent emergence in many countries of a more environmentally conscious consumer public,

combined with increased interest on the part of some industries in providing environmentally sound

consumer products, is a significant development that should be encouraged. Governments and

international organizations, together with the private sector, should develop criteria and methodologies

for the assessment of environmental impacts and resource requirements throughout the full life cycle

of products and processes. Results of those assessments should be transformed into clear indicators in

order to inform consumers and decision makers.

4.21. Governments, in cooperation with industry and other relevant groups, should encourage expansion

of environmental labeling and other environmentally related product information programmes

designed to assist consumers to make informed choices.

4.22. They should also encourage the emergence of an informed consumer public and assist individuals

and households to make environmentally informed choices by:

a. Providing information on the consequences of consumption choices and behavior

so as to encourage demand for environmentally sound products and use of products;

b. Making consumers aware of the health and environmental impact of products,

through such means as consumer legislation and environmental labeling;

c. Encouraging specific consumer-oriented programmes, such as recycling and

deposit/refund systems.

(d) Exercising leadership through government purchasing

4.23. Governments themselves also play a role in consumption, particularly in countries where the

public sector plays a large role in the economy and can have a considerable influence on both

corporate decisions and public perceptions. They should therefore review the purchasing policies of

their agencies and departments so that they may improve, where possible, the environmental content

of government procurement policies, without prejudice to international trade principles.

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(e) Moving towards environmentally sound pricing

4.24. Without the stimulus of prices and market signals that make clear to producers and consumers the

environmental costs of the consumption of energy, materials and natural resources and the generation

of wastes, significant changes in consumption and production patterns seem unlikely to occur in the

near future.

4.25. Some progress has begun in the use of appropriate economic instruments to influence consumer

behavior. These instruments include environmental charges and taxes, deposit/refund systems, etc.

This process should be encouraged in the light of country-specific conditions.

(f) Reinforcing values that support sustainable consumption

4.26. Governments and private-sector organizations should promote more positive attitudes towards

sustainable consumption through education, public awareness programmes and other means, such as

positive advertising of products and services that utilize environmentally sound technologies or

encourage sustainable production and consumption patterns. In the review of the implementation of

Agenda 21, an assessment of the progress achieved in developing these national policies and strategies

should be given due consideration.

Means of implementation

4.27. This programme is concerned primarily with changes in unsustainable patterns of consumption

and production and values that encourage sustainable consumption patterns and lifestyles. It requires

the combined efforts of Governments, consumers and producers. Particular attention should be paid to

the significant role played by women and households as consumers and the potential impacts of their

combined purchasing power on the economy.

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Agenda 21 – Chapter 5

DEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS AND SUSTAINABILITY

5.1. This chapter contains the following programme areas:

a. Developing and disseminating knowledge concerning the links between demographic trends and

factors and sustainable development;

b. Formulating integrated national policies for environment and development, taking into account

demographic trends and factors;

c. Implementing integrated, environment and development programmes at the local level, taking into

account demographic trends and factors.

PROGRAMME AREAS

A. Developing and disseminating knowledge concerning the links between demographic trends and

factors and sustainable development

Basis for action

5.2. Demographic trends and factors and sustainable development have a synergistic relationship.

5.3. The growth of world population and production combined with unsustainable consumption patterns

places increasingly severe stress on the life-supporting capacities of our planet. These interactive

processes affect the use of land, water, air, energy and other resources. Rapidly growing cities, unless

well-managed, face major environmental problems. The increase in both the number and size of cities

calls for greater attention to issues of local government and municipal management. The human

dimensions are key elements to consider in this intricate set of relationships and they should be

adequately taken into consideration in comprehensive policies for sustainable development. Such

policies should address the linkages of demographic trends and factors, resource use, appropriate

technology dissemination, and development. Population policy should also recognize the role played

by human beings in environmental and development concerns. There is a need to increase awareness

of this issue among decision makers at all levels and to provide both better information on which to

base national and international policies and a framework against which to interpret this information.

5.4. There is a need to develop strategies to mitigate both the adverse impact on the environment of human

activities and the adverse impact of environmental change on human populations. The world’s

population is expected to exceed 8 billion by the year 2020. Sixty per cent of the world’s population

already live in coastal areas, while 65 per cent of cities with populations above 2.5 million are located

along the world coasts; several of them are already at or below the present sea level.

Objectives

5.5. The following objectives should be achieved as soon as practicable:

a. To incorporate demographic trends and factors in the global analysis of environment and

development issues;

b. To develop a better understanding of the relationships among demographic dynamics,

technology, cultural behaviour, natural resources and life support systems;

c. To assess human vulnerability in ecologically sensitive areas and centres of population to

determine the priorities for action at all levels, taking full account of community defined

needs.

Activities

Research on the interaction between demographic trends and factors and sustainable development

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5.6. Relevant international, regional and national institutions should consider undertaking the following

activities:

a. Identifying the interactions between demographic processes, natural resources and life support

systems, bearing in mind regional and subregional variations deriving from, inter alia,

different levels of development;

b. Integrating demographic trends and factors into the ongoing study of environmental change,

using the expertise of international, regional and national research networks and of local

communities, first, to study the human dimensions of environmental change and, second, to

identify vulnerable areas;

c. Identifying priority areas for action and developing strategies and programmes to mitigate the

adverse impact of environmental change on human populations, and vice versa.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

5.7. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing

the activities of this programme to be about $10 million from the international community on grant or

concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been

reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non-concessional,

will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for

implementation.

(b) Strengthening research programmes that integrate population, environment and development

5.8. In order to integrate demographic analysis into a broader social science perspective on environment

and development, interdisciplinary research should be increased. International institutions and

networks of experts should enhance their scientific capacity, taking full account of community

experience and knowledge, and should disseminate the experience gained in multidisciplinary

approaches and in linking theory to action.

5.9. Better modelling capabilities should be developed, identifying the range of possible outcomes of

current human activities, especially the interrelated impact of demographic trends and factors, per

capita resource use and wealth distribution, as well as the major migration flows that may be expected

with increasing climatic events and cumulative environmental change that may destroy people’s local

livelihoods.

(c) Developing information and public awareness

5.10. Socio-demographic information should be developed in a suitable format for interfacing with

physical, biological and socio-economic data. Compatible spatial and temporal scales, cross-country

and time-series information, as well as global behavioural indicators should be developed, learning

from local communities’ perceptions and attitudes.

5.11. Awareness should be increased at all levels concerning the need to optimize the sustainable use of

resources through efficient resource management, taking into account the development needs of the

populations of developing countries.

5.12. Awareness should be increased of the fundamental linkages between improving the status of

women and demographic dynamics, particularly through women’s access to education, primary and

reproductive health care programmes, economic independence and their effective, equitable

participation in all levels of decision-making.

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5.13. Results of research concerned with sustainable development issues should be disseminated

through technical reports, scientific journals, the media, workshops, forums or other means so that the

information can be used by decision makers at all levels and increase public awareness.

(d) Developing and/or enhancing institutional capacity and collaboration

5.14. Collaboration and exchange of information should be increased between research institutions and

international, regional and national agencies and all other sectors (including the private sector, local

communities, non-governmental organizations and scientific institutions) from both the industrialized

and developing countries, as appropriate.

5.15. Efforts should be intensified to enhance the capacities of national and local governments, the

private sector and non-governmental organizations in developing countries to meet the growing needs

for improved management of rapidly growing urban areas.

B. Formulating integrated national policies for environment and development, taking into account

demographic trends and factors

Basis for action

5.16. Existing plans for sustainable development have generally recognized demographic trends and

factors as elements that have a critical influence on consumption patterns, production, lifestyles and

long-term sustainability. But in future, more attention will have to be given to these issues in general

policy formulation and the design of development plans. To do this, all countries will have to improve

their own capacities to assess the environment and development implications of their demographic

trends and factors. They will also need to formulate and implement policies and action programmes

where appropriate. Policies should be designed to address the consequences of population growth built

into population momentum, while at the same time incorporating measures to bring about

demographic transition. They should combine environmental concerns and population issues within a

holistic view of development whose primary goals include the alleviation of poverty; secure

livelihoods; good health; quality of life; improvement of the status and income of women and their

access to schooling and professional training, as well as fulfilment of their personal aspirations; and

empowerment of individuals and communities. Recognizing that large increases in the size and

number of cities will occur in developing countries under any likely population scenario, greater

attention should be given to preparing for the needs, in particular of women and children, for improved

municipal management and local government.

Objective

5.17. Full integration of population concerns into national planning, policy and decision-making

processes should continue. Population policies and programmes should be considered, with full

recognition of women’s rights.

Activities

5.18. Governments and other relevant actors could, inter alia, undertake the following activities, with

appropriate assistance from aid agencies, and report on their status of implementation to the

International Conference on Population and Development to be held in 1994, especially to its

committee on population and environment.

(a) Assessing the implications of national demographic trends and factors

5.19. The relationships between demographic trends and factors and environmental change and between

environmental degradation and the components of demographic change should be analysed.

5.20. Research should be conducted on how environmental factors interact with socio-economic factors

as a cause of migration.

5.21. Vulnerable population groups (such as rural landless workers, ethnic minorities, refugees,

migrants, displaced people, women heads of household) whose changes in demographic structure may

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have specific impacts on sustainable development should be identified.

5.22. An assessment should be made of the implications of the age structure of the population on

resource demand and dependency burdens, ranging from educational expenses for the young to health

care and support for the elderly, and on household income generation.

5.23. An assessment should also be made of national population carrying capacity in the context of

satisfaction of human needs and sustainable development, and special attention should be given to

critical resources, such as water and land, and environmental factors, such as ecosystem health and

biodiversity.

5.24. The impact of national demographic trends and factors on the traditional livelihoods of indigenous

groups and local communities, including changes in traditional land use because of internal population

pressures, should be studied.

(b) Building and strengthening a national information base

5.25. National databases on demographic trends and factors and environment should be built and/or

strengthened, disaggregating data by ecological region (ecosystem approach), and

population/environment profiles should be established by region.

5.26. Methodologies and instruments should be developed to identify areas where sustainability is, or

may be, threatened by the environmental effects of demographic trends and factors, incorporating both

current and projected demographic data linked to natural environmental processes.

5.27. Case-studies of local level responses by different groups to demographic dynamics should be

developed, particularly in areas subject to environmental stress and in deteriorating urban centres.

5.28. Population data should be disaggregated by, inter alia, sex and age in order to take into account the

implications of the gender division of labour for the use and management of natural resources.

(c) Incorporating demographic features into policies and plans

5.29. In formulating human settlements policies, account should be taken of resource needs, waste

production and ecosystem health.

5.30. 5.30. The direct and induced effects of demographic changes on environment and development

programmes should, where appropriate, be integrated, and the impact on demographic features

assessed.

5.31. 5.31. National population policy goals and programmes that are consistent with national

environment and development plans for sustainability and in keeping with the freedom, dignity and

personally held values of individuals should be established and implemented.

5.32. 5.32. Appropriate socio-economic policies for the young and the elderly, both in terms of family

and state support systems, should be developed.

5.33. 5.33. Policies and programmes should be developed for handling the various types of migrations

that result from or induce environmental disruptions, with special attention to women and vulnerable

groups.

5.34. 5.34. Demographic concerns, including concerns for environmental migrants and displaced

people, should be incorporated in the programmes for sustainable development of relevant

international and regional institutions.

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5.35. 5.35. National reviews should be conducted and the integration of population policies in national

development and environment strategies should be monitored nationally.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

5.36. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $90 million from the international

community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates

only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that

are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes

Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Raising awareness of demographic and sustainable develop ment interactions

5.37. Understanding of the interactions between demographic trends and factors and sustainable

development should be increased in all sectors of society. Stress should be placed on local and national

action. Demographic and sustainable development education should be coordinated and integrated in

both the formal and non-formal education sectors. Particular attention should be given to population

literacy programmes, notably for women. Special emphasis should be placed on the linkage between

these programmes, primary environmental care and the provision of primary health care and services.

(c) Strengthening institutions

5.38. The capacity of national, regional and local structures to deal with issues relating to demographic

trends and factors and sustainable development should be enhanced. This would involve strengthening

the relevant bodies responsible for population issues to enable them to elaborate policies consistent

with the national prospects for sustainable development. Cooperation among government, national

research institutions, non-governmental organizations and local communities in assessing problems

and evaluating policies should also be enhanced.

5.39. The capacity of the relevant United Nations organs, organizations and bodies, international and

regional intergovernmental bodies, non-governmental organizations and local communities should, as

appropriate, be enhanced to help countries develop sustainable development policies on request and, as

appropriate, provide assistance to environmental migrants and displaced people.

5.40. Inter-agency support for national sustainable development policies and programmes should be

improved through better coordination of population and environment activities.

(d) Promoting human resource development

5.41. The international and regional scientific institutions should assist Governments, upon request, to

include concerns regarding the population/environment interactions at the global, ecosystem and

micro-levels in the training of demographers and population and environment specialists. Training

should include research on linkages and ways to design integrated strategies.

C. Implementing integrated environment and development programmes at the local level, taking into

account demographic trends and factors

Basis for action

5.42. Population programmes are more effective when implemented together with appropriate cross- sectoral policies. To attain sustainability at the local level, a new framework is needed that integrates

demographic trends and factors with such factors as ecosystem health, technology and human

settlements, and with socio-economic structures and access to resources. Population programmes

should be consistent with socio-economic and environmental planning. Integrated sustainable

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development programmes should closely correlate action on demographic trends and factors with

resource management activities and development goals that meet the needs of the people concerned.

Objective

5.43. Population programmes should be implemented along with natural resource management and

development programmes at the local level that will ensure sustainable use of natural resources,

improve the quality of life of the people and enhance environmental quality.

Activities

5.44. Governments and local communities, including community-based women’s organizations and

national non-governmental organizations, consistent with national plans, objectives, strategies and

priorities, could, inter alia, undertake the activities set out below with the assistance and cooperation of

international organizations, as appropriate. Governments could share their experience in the

implementation of Agenda 21 at the International Conference on Population and Development, to be

held in 1994, especially its committee on population and environment.

(a) Developing a framework for action

5.45. An effective consultative process should be established and implemented with concerned groups

of society where the formulation and decision-making of all components of the programmes are based

on a nationwide consultative process drawing on community meetings, regional workshops and

national seminars, as appropriate. This process should ensure that views of women and men on needs,

perspective and constraints are equally well reflected in the design of programmes, and that solutions

are rooted in specific experience. The poor and underprivileged should be priority groups in this

process.

5.46. Nationally determined policies for integrated and multifaceted programmes, with special attention

to women, to the poorest people living in critical areas and to other vulnerable groups should be

implemented, ensuring the involvement of groups with a special potential to act as agents for change

and sustainable development. Special emphasis should be placed on those programmes that achieve

multiple objectives, encouraging sustainable economic development, and mitigating adverse impacts

of demographic trends and factors, and avoiding long-term environmental damage. Food security,

access to secure tenure, basic shelter, and essential infrastructure, education, family welfare, women’s

reproductive health, family credit schemes, reforestation programmes, primary environmental care,

women’s employment should, as appropriate, be included among other factors.

5.47. An analytical framework should be develop ed to identify complementary elements of sustainable

development policies as well as the national mechanisms to monitor and evaluate their effects on

population dynamics.

5.48. Special attention should be given to the critical role of women in population/environment

programmes and in achieving sustainable development. Projects should take advantage of

opportunities to link social, economic and environmental gains for women and their families.

Empowerment of women is essential and should be assured through education, training and policies to

accord and improve women’s right and access to assets, human and civil rights, labour-saving

measures, job opportunities and participation in decision-making. Population/environment

programmes must enable women to mobilize themselves to alleviate their burden and improve their

capacity to participate in and benefit from socio-economic development. Specific measures should be

undertaken to close the gap between female and male illiteracy rates.

(b) Supporting programmes that promote changes in demographic trends and factors towards sustainability

5.49. Reproductive health programmes and services, should, as appropriate, be developed and enhanced

to reduce maternal and infant mortality from all causes and enable women and men to fulfil their

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personal aspirations in terms of family size, in a way in keeping with their freedom and dignity and

personally held values.

5.50. Governments should take active steps to implement, as a matter of urgency, in accordance with

country-specific conditions and legal systems, measures to ensure that women and men have the same

right to decide freely and responsibly on the number and spacing of their children, to have access to

the information, education and means, as appropriate, to enable them to exercis e this right in keeping

with their freedom, dignity and personally held values taking into account ethical and cultural

considerations.

5.51. Governments should take active steps to implement programmes to establish and strengthen

preventive and curative health facilities that include women-centred, women-managed, safe and

effective reproductive health care and affordable, accessible services, as appropriate, for the

responsible planning of family size, in keeping with freedom, dignity and personally held values and

taking into account ethical and cultural considerations. Programmes should focus on providing

comprehensive health care, including pre-natal care, education and information on health and

responsible parenthood and should provide the opportunity for all women to breast-feed fully, at least

during the first four months post-partum. Programmes should fully support women’s productive and

reproductive roles and well being, with special attention to the need for providing equal and improved

health care for all children and the need to reduce the risk of maternal and child mortality and sickness.

5.52. Consistent with national priorities, culturally based information and education programmes that

transmit reproductive health messages to men and women that are easily understood should be

developed.

(c) Creating appropriate institutional conditions

5.53. Constituencies and institutional conditions to facilitate the implementation of demographic

activities should, as appropriate, be fostered. This requires support and commitment from political,

indigenous, religious and traditional authorities, the private sector and the national scientific

community. In developing these appropriate institutional conditions, countries should closely involve

established national machinery for women.

5.54. Population assistance should be coordinated with bilateral and multilateral donors to ensure that

population needs and requirements of all developing countries are addressed, fully respecting the

overall coordinating responsibility and the choice and strategies of the recipient countries.

5.55. Coordination should be improved at local and international levels. Working practices should be

enhanced in order to make optimum use of resources, draw on collective experience and improve the

implementation of programmes. UNFPA and other relevant agencies should strengthen the

coordination of international cooperation activities with recipient and donor countries in order to

ensure that adequate funding is available to respond to growing needs.

5.56. Proposals should be developed for local, national and international population/environment

programmes in line with specific needs for achieving sustainability. Where appropriate, institutional

changes must be implemented so that old-age security does not entirely depend on input from family

members.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

5.57. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $7 billion, including about $3.5 billion from

the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

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terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and

programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Research

5.58. Research should be undertaken with a view to developing specific action programmes; it will be

necessary to establish priorities between proposed areas of research.

5.59. Socio-demographic research should be conducted on how populations respond to a changing

environment.

5.60. Understanding of socio-cultural and political factors that can positively influence acceptance of

appropriate population policy instruments should be improved.

5.61. Surveys of changes in needs for appropriate services relating to responsible planning of family

size, reflecting variations among different socio-economic groups and variations in different

geographical regions should be undertaken.

(c) Human resource development and capacity-building

5.62. The areas of human resource development and capacity-building, with particular attention to the

education and training of women, are areas of critical importance and are a very high priority in the

implementation of population programmes.

5.63. Workshops to help programme and projects managers to link population programmes to other

development and environmental goals should be conducted.

5.64. Educational materials, including guides/workbooks for planners and decision makers and other

actors of population/environment/development programmes, should be developed.

5.65. Cooperation should be developed between Governments, scientific institutions and non- governmental organizations within the region, and similar institutions outside the region. Cooperation

with local organizations should be fostered in ordered to raise awareness, engage in demonstration

projects and report on the experience gained.

5.66. The recommendations contained in this chapter should in no way prejudice discussions at the

International Conference on Population and Development in 1994, which will be the appropriate

forum for dealing with population and development issues, taking into account the recommendations

of the International Conference on Population, held in Mexico City in 1984, 1/ and the Forward- looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women, 2/ adopted by the World Conference to Review

and Appraise the Achievements of the United Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace,

held in Nairobi in 1985.

Notes

1/ Report of the International Conference on Population, Mexico City, 6-14 August 1984 (United Nations

publication, Sales No. E.84.XIII.8), chap. I.

2/ Report of the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations

Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace, Nairobi, 15-26 July 1985 (United Nations

publication, Sales No. E.84.IV.10), chap. I, sect. A.

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Agenda 21 – Chapter 6

PROTECTING AND PROMOTING HUMAN HEALTH

6.1. Health and development are intimately interconnected. Both insufficient development leading to

poverty and inappropriate development resulting in overconsumption, coupled with an expanding

world population, can result in severe environmental health p roblems in both developing and

developed nations. Action items under Agenda 21 must address the primary health needs of the

world’s population, since they are integral to the achievement of the goals of sustainable development

and primary environmental care. The linkage of health, environmental and socio-economic

improvements requires intersectoral efforts. Such efforts, involving education, housing, public works

and community groups, including businesses, schools and universities and religious, civic and cultural

organizations, are aimed at enabling people in their communities to ensure sustainable development.

Particularly relevant is the inclusion of prevention programmes rather than relying solely on

remediation and treatment. Countries ought to develop plans for priority actions, drawing on the

programme areas in this chapter, which are based on cooperative planning by the various levels of

government, non-governmental organizations and local communities. An appropriate international

organization, such as WHO, should coordinate these activities.

6.2. The following programme areas are contained in this chapter:

a. Meeting primary health care needs, particularly in rural areas;

b. Control of communicable diseases;

c. Protecting vulnerable groups;

d. Meeting the urban health challenge;

e. Reducing health risks from environmental pollution and hazards.

PROGRAMME AREAS

A. Meeting primary health care needs, particularly in rural areas Basis for action

6.3. Health ultimately depends on the ability to manage successfully the interaction between the physical,

spiritual, biological and economic/social environment. Sound development is not possible without a

healthy population; yet most developmental activities affect the environment to some degree, which in

turn causes or exacerbates many health problems. Conversely, it is the very lack of development that

adversely affects the health condition of many people, which can be alleviated only through

development. The health sector cannot meet basic needs and objectives on its own; it is dependent on

social, economic and spiritual development, while directly contributing to such development. It is also

dependent on a healthy environment, including the provision of a safe water supply and sanitation and

the promotion of a safe food supply and proper nutrition. Particular attention should be directed

towards food safety, with priority placed on the elimination of food contamination; comprehensive and

sustainable water policies to ensure safe drinking water and sanitation to preclude both microbial and

chemical contamination; and promotion of health education, immunization and provision of essential

drugs. Education and appropriate services regarding responsible planning of family size, with respect

for cultural, religious and social aspects, in keeping with freedom, dignity and personally held values

and taking into account ethical and cultural considerations, also contribute to these intersectoral

activities.

Objectives

6.4. Within the overall strategy to achieve health for all by the year 2000, the objectives are to meet the

basic health needs of rural peri-urban and urban populations; to provide the necessary specialized

environmental health services; and to coordinate the involvement of citizens, the health sector, the

health-related sectors and relevant non-health sectors (business, social, educational and religious

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institutions) in solutions to health problems. As a matter of priority, health service coverage should be

achieved for population groups in greatest need, particularly those living in rural areas.

Activities

6.5. National Governments and local authorities, with the support of relevant non-governmental

organizations and international organizations, in the light of countries’ specific conditions and needs,

should strengthen their health sector programmes, with special attention to rural needs, to:

(a) Build basic health infrastructures, monitoring and planning systems:

i. Develop and strengthen primary health care systems that are practical, community-based,

scientifically sound, socially acceptable and appropriate to their needs and that meet basic

health needs for clean water, safe food and sanitation;

ii. Support the use and strengthening of mechanisms that improve coordination between health

and related sectors at all appropriate levels of government, and in communities and relevant

organizations;

iii. Develop and implement rational and affordable approaches to the establishment and

maintenance of health facilities;

iv. Ensure and, where appropriate, increase provision of social services support;

v. Develop strategies, including reliable health indicators, to monitor the progress and evaluate

the effectiveness of health programmes;

vi. Explore ways to finance the health system based on the assessment of the resources needed

and identify the various financing alternatives;

vii. Promote health education in schools, information exchange, technical support and training;

viii. Support initiatives for self-management of services by vulnerable groups;

ix. Integrate traditional knowledge and experience into national health systems, as appropriate;

x. Promote the provisions for necessary logistics for outreach activities, particularly in rural

areas;

xi. Promote and strengthen community-based rehabilitation activities for the rural handicapped.

(b) Support research and methodology development:

i. Establish mechanisms for sustained community involvement in environmental health

activities, including optimization of the appropriate use of community financial and human

resources;

ii. Conduct environmental health research, including behaviour research and research on ways to

increase coverage and ensure greater utilization of services by peripheral, underserved and

vulnerable populations, as appropriate to good prevention services and health care;

iii. Conduct research into traditional knowledge of prevention and curative health practices.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

6.6. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing

the activities of this programme to be about $40 billion, including about $5 billion from the

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international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude

estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms,

including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and

programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

6.7. New approaches to planning and managing health care systems and facilities should be tested, and

research on ways of integrating appropriate technologies into health infrastructures supported. The

development of scientifically sound health technology should enhance adaptability to local needs and

maintainability by community resources, including the maintenance and repair of equipment used in

health care. Programmes to facilitate the transfer and sharing of information and expertise should be

developed, including communication methods and educational materials.

(c) Human resource development

6.8. Intersectoral approaches to the reform of health personnel development should be strengthened to

ensure its relevance to the “Health for All” strategies. Efforts to enhance managerial skills at the

district level should be supported, with the aim of ensuring the systematic development and efficient

operation of the basic health system. Intensive, short, practical training programmes with emphasis on

skills in effective communication, community organization and facilitation of behaviour change

should be developed in order to prepare the local personnel of all sectors involved in social

development for carrying out their respective roles. In cooperation with the education sector, special

health education programmes should be developed focusing on the role of women in the health-care

system.

(d) Capacity-building

6.9. Governments should consider adopting enabling and facilitating strategies to promote the participation

of communities in meeting their own needs, in addition to providing direct support to the provision of

health-care services. A major focus should be the preparation of community-based health and health- related workers to assume an active role in community health education, with emphasis on team work,

social mobilization and the support of other development workers. National programmes should cover

district health systems in urban, peri-urban and rural areas, the delivery of health programmes at the

district level, and the development and support of referral services.

B. Control of communicable diseases

Basis for action

6.10. Advances in the development of vaccines and chemotherapeutic agents have brought many

communicable diseases under control. However, there remain many important communicable diseases

for which environmental control measures are indispensable, especially in the field of water supply

and sanitation. Such diseases include cholera, diarrhoeal diseases, leishmaniasis, malaria and

schistosomiasis. In all such instances, the environmental measures, either as an integral part of primary

health care or undertaken outside the health sector, form an indispensable component of overall

disease control strategies, together with health and hygiene education, and in some cases, are the only

component.

6.11. With HIV infection levels estimated to increase to 30-40 million by the year 2000, the socio- economic impact of the pandemic is expected to be devastating for all countries, and increasingly for

women and children. While direct health costs will be substantial, they will be dwarfed by the indirect

costs of the pandemic – mainly costs associated with the loss of income and decreased productivity of

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the workforce. The pandemic will inhibit growth of the service and industrial sectors and significantly

increase the costs of human capacity-building and retraining. The agricultural sector is particularly

affected where production is labour-intensive.

Objectives

6.12. A number of goals have been formulated through extensive consultations in various international

forums attended by virtually all Governments, relevant United Nations organizations (including WHO,

UNICEF, UNFPA, UNESCO, UNDP and the World Bank) and a number of non-governmental

organizations. Goals (including but not limited to those listed below) are recommended for

implementation by all countries where they are applicable, with appropriate adaptation to the specific

situation of each country in terms of phasing, standards, priorities and availability of resources, with

respect for cultural, religious and social aspects, in keeping with freedom, dignity and personally held

values and taking into account ethical considerations. Additional goals that are particularly relevant to

a country’s specific situation should be added in the country’s national plan of action (Plan of Action

for Implementing the World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children in

the 1990s). 1/ Such national level action plans should be coordinated and monitored from within the

public health sector. Some major goals are:

a. By the year 2000, to eliminate guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis);

b. By the year 2000, eradicate polio;

c. By the year 2000, to effectively control onchocerciasis (river blindness) and leprosy;

d. By 1995, to reduce measles deaths by 95 per cent and reduce measles cases by 90 per cent

compared with pre-immunization levels;

e. By continued efforts, to provide health and hygiene education and to ensure universal access

to safe drinking water and universal access to sanitary measures of excreta disposal, thereby

markedly reducing waterborne diseases such as cholera and schistosomiasis and reducing:

i. By the year 2000, the number of deaths from childhood diarrhoea in developing

countries by 50 to 70 per cent;

ii. By the year 2000, the incidence of childhood diarrhoea in developing countries by at

least 25 to 50 per cent;

f. By the year 2000, to initiate comprehensive programmes to reduce mortality from acute

respiratory infections in children under five years by at least one third, particularly in

countries with high infant mortality;

g. By the year 2000, to provide 95 per cent of the world’s child population with access to

appropriate care for acute respiratory infections within the community and at first referral

level;

h. By the year 2000, to institute anti-malaria programmes in all countries where malaria presents

a significant health problem and maintain the transmission-free status of areas freed from

endemic malaria;

i. By the year 2000, to implement control programmes in countries where major human

parasitic infections are endemic and achieve an overall reduction in the prevalence of

schistosomiasis and of other trematode infections by 40 per cent and 25 per cent, respectively,

from a 1984 baseline, as well as a marked reduction in incidence, prevalence and intensity of

filarial infections;

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j. To mobilize and unify national and international efforts against AIDS to prevent infection and

to reduce the personal and social impact of HIV infection;

k. To contain the resurgence of tuberculosis, with particular emphasis on multiple antibiotic

resistant forms;

l. To accelerate research on improved vaccines and implement to the fullest extent possible the

use of vaccines in the prevention of disease.

Activities

6.13. Each national Government, in accordance with national plans for public health, priorities and

objectives, should consider developing a national health action plan with appropriate international

assistance and support, including, at a minimum, the following components:

a. National public health systems:

i. Programmes to identify environmental hazards in the causation of communicable

diseases;

ii. Monitoring systems of epidemiological data to ensure adequate forecasting of the

introduction, spread or aggravation of communicable diseases;

iii. Intervention programmes, including measures consistent with the principles of the

global AIDS strategy;

iv. Vaccines for the prevention of communicable diseases;

b. Public information and health education: Provide education and disseminate information on

the risks of endemic communicable diseases and build awareness on environmental methods

for control of communicable diseases to enable communities to play a role in the control of

communicable diseases;

c. Intersectoral cooperation and coordination:

i. Second experienced health professionals to relevant sectors, such as planning,

housing and agriculture;

ii. Develop guidelines for effective coordination in the areas of professional training,

assessment of risks and development of control technology;

d. Control of environmental factors that influence the spread of communicable diseases: Apply

methods for the prevention and control of communicable diseases, including water supply and

sanitation control, water pollution control, food quality control, integrated vector control,

garbage collection and disposal and environmentally sound irrigation practices;

e. Primary health care system:

i. Strengthen prevention programmes, with particular emphasis on adequate and

balanced nutrition;

ii. Strengthen early diagnostic programmes and improve capacities for early

preventative/treatment action;

iii. Reduce the vulnerability to HIV infection of women and their offspring;

f. Support for research and methodology development:

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i. Intensify and expand multidisciplinary research, including focused efforts on the

mitigation and environmental control of tropical diseases;

ii. Carry out intervention studies to provide a solid epidemiological basis for control

policies and to evaluate the efficiency of alternative approaches;

iii. Undertake studies in the population and among health workers to determine the

influence of cultural, behavioural and social factors on control policies;

g. Development and dissemination of technology:

i. Develop new technologies for the effective control of communicable diseases;

ii. Promote studies to determine how to optimally disseminate results from research;

iii. Ensure technical assistance, including the sharing of knowledge and know-how.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

6.14. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $4 billion, including about $900 million

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and

programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

6.15. Efforts to prevent and control diseases should include investigations of the epidemiological, social

and economic bases for the development of more effective national strategies for the integrated control

of communicable diseases. Cost-effective methods of environmental control should be adapted to local

developmental conditions.

(c) Human resource development

6.16. National and regional training institutions should promote broad intersectoral approaches to

prevention and control of communicable diseases, including training in epidemiology and community

prevention and control, immunology, molecular biology and the application of new vaccines. Health

education materials should be developed for use by community workers and for the education of

mothers for the prevention and treatment of diarrhoeal diseases in the home.

(d) Capacity-building

6.17. The health sector should develop adequate data on the distribution of communicable diseases, as

well as the institutional capacity to respond and collaborate with other sectors for prevention,

mitigation and correction of communicable disease hazards through environmental protection. The

advocacy at policy- and decision-making levels should be gained, professional and societal support

mobilized, and communities organized in developing self-reliance.

C. Protecting vulnerable groups

Basis for action

6.18. In addition to meeting basic health needs, specific emphasis has to be given to protecting and

educating vulnerable groups, particularly infants, youth, women, indigenous people and the very poor

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as a prerequisite for sustainable development. Special attention should also be paid to the health needs

of the elderly and disabled population.

6.19. Infants and children. Approximately one third of the world’s population are children under 15

years old. At least 15 million of these children die annually from such preventable causes as birth

trauma, birth asphyxia, acute respiratory infections, malnutrition, communicable diseases and

diarrhoea. The health of children is affected more severely than other population groups by

malnutrition and adverse environmental factors, and many children risk exploitation as cheap labour or

in prostitution.

6.20. Youth. As has been the historical experience of all countries, youth are particularly vulnerable to

the problems associated with economic development, which often weakens traditional forms of social

support essential for the healthy development, of young people. Urbanization and changes in social

mores have increased substance abuse, unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases,

including AIDS. Currently more than half of all people alive are under the age of 25, and four of every

five live in developing countries. Therefore it is important to ensure that historical experience is not

replicated.

6.21. Women. In developing countries, the health status of women remains relatively low, and during

the 1980s poverty, malnutrition and general ill-health in women were even rising. Most women in

developing countries still do not have adequate basic educational opportunities and they lack the

means of promoting their health, responsibly controlling their reproductive life and improving their

socio-economic status. Particular attention should be given to the provision of pre-natal care to ensure

healthy babies.

6.22. Indigenous people and their communities. Indigenous people had their communities make up a

significant percentage of global population. The outcomes of their experience have tended to be very

similar in that the basis of their relationship with traditional lands has been fundamentally changed.

They tend to feature disproportionately in unemployment, lack of housing, poverty and poor health. In

many countries the number of indigenous people is growing faster than the general population.

Therefore it is important to target health initiatives for indigenous people.

Objectives

6.23. The general objectives of protecting vulnerable groups are to ensure that all such individuals

should be allowed to develop to their full potential (including healthy physical, mental and spiritual

development); to ensure t hat young people can develop, establish and maintain healthy lives; to allow

women to perform their key role in society; and to support indigenous people through educational,

economic and technical opportunities.

6.24. Specific major goals for child survival, development and protection were agreed upon at the

World Summit for Children and remain valid also for Agenda 21. Supporting and sectoral goals cover

women’s health and education, nutrition, child health, water and sanitation, basic education and

children in difficult circumstances.

6.25. Governments should take active steps to implement, as a matter of urgency, in accordance with

country specific conditions and legal systems, measures to ensure that women and men have the same

right to decide freely and responsibly on the number and spacing of their children, to have access to

the information, education and means, as appropriate, to enable them to exercise this right in keeping

with their freedom, dignity and personally held values, taking into account ethical and cultural

considerations.

6.26. Governments should take active steps to implement programmes to establish and strengthen

preventive and curative health facilities which include women-centred, women-managed, safe and

effective reproductive health care and affordable, accessible services, as appropriate, for the

responsible planning of family size, in keeping with freedom, dignity and personally held values and

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taking into account ethical and cultural considerations. Programmes should focus on providing

comprehensive health care, including pre-natal care, education and information on health and

responsible parenthood and should provide the opportunity for all women to breast-feed fully, at least

during the first four months post-partum. Programmes should fully support women’s productive and

reproductive roles and well being, with special attention to the need for providing equal and improved

health care for all children and the need to reduce the risk of maternal and child mortality and sickness.

Activities

6.27. National Governments, in cooperation with local and non-governmental organizations, should

initiate or enhance programmes in the following areas:

a. Infants and children:

i. Strengthen basic health-care services for children in the context of primary health- care delivery, including prenatal care, breast-feeding, immunization and nutrition

programmes;

ii. Undertake widespread adult education on the use of oral rehydration therapy for

diarrhoea, treatment of respiratory infections and prevention of communicable

diseases;

iii. Promote the creation, amendment and enforcement of a legal framework protecting

children from sexual and workplace exploitation;

iv. Protect children from the effects of environmental and occupational toxic

compounds;

b. Youth: Strengthen services for youth in health, education and social sectors in order to

provide better information, education, counselling and treatment for specific health problems,

including drug abuse;

c. Women:

i. Involve women’s groups in decision-making at the national and community levels to

identify health risks and incorporate health issues in national action programmes on

women and development;

ii. Provide concrete incentives to encourage and maintain attendance of women of all

ages at school and adult education courses, including health education and training in

primary, home and maternal health care;

iii. Carry out baseline surveys and knowledge, attitude and practice studies on the health

and nutrition of women throughout their life cycle, especially as related to the impact

of environmental degradation and adequate resources;

d. Indigenous people and their communities:

i. Strengthen, through resources and self-management, preventative and curative health

services;

ii. Integrate traditional knowledge and experience into health systems.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

6.28. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $3.7 billion, including about $400 billion

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from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and

programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

6.29. Educational, health and research institutions should be strengthened to provide support to improve

the health of vulnerable groups. Social research on the specific problems of these groups should be

expanded and methods for implementing flexible pragmatic solutions explored, with emphasis on

preventive measures. Technical support should be provided to Governments, institutions and non- governmental organizations for youth, women and indigenous people in the health sector.

(c) Human resources development

6.30. The development of human resources for the health of children, youth and women should include

reinforcement of educational instit utions, promotion of interactive methods of education for health and

increased use of mass media in disseminating information to the target groups. This requires the

training of more community health workers, nurses, midwives, physicians, social scientists and

educators, the education of mothers, families and communities and the strengthening of ministries of

education, health, population etc.

(d) Capacity-building

6.31. Governments should promote, where necessary: (i) the organization of national, intercountry and

interregional symposia and other meetings for the exchange of information among agencies and

groups concerned with the health of children, youth, women and indigenous people, and (ii) women’s

organizations, youth groups and indigenous people’s organizations to facilitate health and consult them

on the creation, amendment and enforcement of legal frameworks to ensure a healthy environment for

children, youth, women and indigenous peoples.

D. Meeting the urban health challenge

Basis for action

6.32. For hundreds of millions of people, the poor living conditions in urban and peri-urban areas are

destroying lives, health, and social and moral values. Urban growth has outstripped society’s capacity

to meet human needs, leaving hundreds of millions of people with inadequate incomes, diets, housing

and services. Urban growth exposes populations to serious environmental hazards and has outstripped

the capacity of municipal and local governments to provide the environmental health services that the

people need. All too often, urban development is associated with destructive effects on the physical

environment and the resource base needed for sustainable development. Environmental pollution in

urban areas is associated with excess morbidity and mortality. Overcrowding and inadequate housing

contribute to respiratory diseases, tuberculosis, meningitis and other diseases. In urban environments,

many factors that affect human health are outside the health sector. Improvements in urban health

therefore will depend on coordinated action by all levels of government, health care providers,

businesses, religious groups, social and educational institutions and citizens.

Objectives

6.33. The health and well-being of all urban dwellers must be improved so that they can contribute to

economic and social development. The global objective is to achieve a 10 to 40 per cent improvement

in health indicators by the year 2000. The same rate of improvement should be achieved for

environmental, housing and health service indicators. These include the development of quantitative

objectives for infant mortality, maternal mortality, percentage of low birth weight newborns and

specific indicators (e.g. tuberculosis as an indicator of crowded housing, diarrhoeal diseases as

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indicators of inadequate water and sanitation, rates of industrial and transportation accidents that

indicate possible opportunities for prevention of injury, and social problems such as drug abuse,

violence and crime that indicate underlying social disorders).

Activities

6.34. Local authorities, with the appropriate support of national Governments and international

organizations should be encouraged to take effective measures to initiate or strengthen the following

activities:

a. Develop and implement municipal and local health plans:

i. Establish or strengthen intersectoral committees at both the political and technical

level, including active collaboration on linkages with scientific, cultural, religious,

medical, business, social and other city institutions, using networking arrangements;

ii. Adopt or strengthen municipal or local “enabling strategies” that emphasize “doing

with” rather than “doing for” and create supportive environments for health;

iii. Ensure that public health education in schools, workplace, mass media etc. is

provided or strengthened;

iv. Encourage communities to develop personal skills and awareness of primary health

care;

v. Promote and strengthen community-based rehabilitation activities for the urban and

peri-urban disabled and the elderly;

b. Survey, where necessary, the existing health, social and environmental conditions in cities,

including documentation of intra-urban differences;

c. Strengthen environmental health services:

i. Adopt health impact and environmental impact assessment procedures;

ii. Provide basic and in-service training for new and existing personnel;

d. Establish and maintain city networks for collaboration and exchange of models of good

practice.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

6.35. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $222 million, including about $22 million

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and

programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

6.36. Decision-making models should be further developed and more widely used to assess the costs

and the health and environment impacts of alternative technologies and strategies. Improvement in

urban development and management requires better national and municipal statistics based on

practical, standardized indicators. Development of methods is a priority for the measurement of intra-

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urban and intra-district variations in health status and environmental conditions, and for the

application of this information in planning and management.

(c) Human resources development

6.37. Programmes must supply the orientation and basic training of municipal staff required for the

healthy city processes. Basic and in-service training of environmental health personnel will also be

needed.

(d) Capacity-building

6.38. The programme is aimed towards improved planning and management capabilities in the

municipal and local government and its partners in central Government, the private sector and

universities. Capacity development should be focused on obtaining sufficient information, improving

coordination mechanisms linking all the key actors, and making better use of available instruments and

resources for implementation.

E. Reducing health risks from environmental pollution and hazards

Basis for action

6.39. In many locations around the world the general environment (air, water and land), workplaces and

even individual dwellings are so badly polluted that the health of hundreds of millions of people is

adversely affected. This is, inter alia, due to past and present developments in consumption and

production patterns and lifestyles, in energy production and use, in industry, in transportation etc., with

little or no regard for environmental protection. There have been notable improvements in some

countries, but deterioration of the environment continues. The ability of countries to tackle pollution

and health problems is greatly restrained because of lack of resources. Pollution control and health

protection measures have often not kept pace with economic development. Considerable development- related environmental health hazards exist in the newly industrializing countries. Furthermore, the

recent analysis of WHO has clearly established the interdependence among the factors of health,

environment and development and has revealed that most countries are lacking such integration as

would lead to an effective pollution control mechanism. 2/ Without prejudice to such criteria as may

be agreed upon by the international community, or to standards which will have to be determined

nationally, it will be essential in all cases to consider the systems of values prevailing in each country

and the extent of the applicability of standards that are valid for the most advanced countries but may

be inappropriate and of unwarranted social cost for the developing countries.

Objectives

6.40. The overall objective is to minimize hazards and maintain the environment to a degree that human

health and safety is not impaired or endangered and yet encourage development to proceed. Specific

programme objectives are:

a. By the year 2000, to incorporate appropriate environmental and health safeguards as part

of national development programmes in all countries;

b. By the year 2000, to establish, as appropriate, adequate national infrastructure and

programmes for providing environmental injury, hazard surveillance and the basis for

abatement in all countries;

c. By the year 2000, to establish, as appropriate, integrated programmes for tackling

pollution at the source and at the disposal site, with a focus on abatement actions in all

countries;

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d. To identify and compile, as appropriate, the necessary statistical information on health

effects to support cost/benefit analysis, including environmental health impact assessment

for pollution control, prevention and abatement measures.

Activities

6.41. Nationally determined action programmes, with international assistance, support and coordination,

where necessary, in this area should include:

a. Urban air pollution:

i. Develop appropriate pollution control technology on the basis of risk

assessment and epidemiological research for the introduction of

environmentally sound production processes and suitable safe mass

transport;

ii. Develop air pollution control capacities in large cities, emphasizing

enforcement programmes and using monitoring networks, as appropriate;

b. Indoor air pollution:

i. Support research and develop programmes for applying prevention and

control methods to reducing indoor air pollution, including the provision of

economic incentives for the installation of appropriate technology;

ii. Develop and implement health education campaigns, particularly in

developing countries, to reduce the health impact of domestic use of

biomass and coal;

c. Water pollution:

i. Develop appropriate water pollution control technologies on the basis of

health risk assessment;

ii. Develop water pollution control capacities in large cities;

d. Pesticides: Develop mechanisms to control the distribution and use of pesticides in

order to minimize the risks to human health by transportation, storage, application

and residual effects of pesticides used in agriculture and preservation of wood;

e. Solid waste:

i. Develop appropriate solid waste disposal technologies on the basis of health

risk assessment;

ii. Develop appropriate solid waste disposal capacities in large cities;

f. Human settlements: Develop programmes for improving health conditions in human

settlements, in particular within slums and non-tenured settlements, on the basis of

health risk assessment;

g. Noise: Develop criteria for maximum permitted safe noise exposure levels and

promote noise assessment and control as part of environmental health programmes;

h. Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation: Develop and implement appropriate national

legislation, standards and enforcement procedures on the basis of existing

international guidelines;

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i. Effects of ultraviolet radiation: Undertake, as a matter of urgency, research

on the effects on human health of the increasing ultraviolet radiation

reaching the earth’s surface as a consequence of depletion of the

stratospheric ozone layer;

ii. On the basis of the outcome of this research, consider taking appropriate

remedial measures to mitigate the above-mentioned effects on human

beings;

i. Industry and energy production:

i. Establish environmental health impact assessment procedures for the

planning and development of new industries and energy facilities;

ii. Incorporate appropriate health risk analysis in all national programmes for

pollution control and management, with particular emphasis on toxic

compounds such as lead;

iii. Establish industrial hygiene programmes in all major industries for the

surveillance of workers’ exposure to health hazards;

iv. Promote the introduction of environmentally sound technologies within the

industry and energy sectors;

j. Monitoring and assessment: Establish, as appropriate, adequate environmental

monitoring capacities for the surveillance of environmental quality and the health

status of populations;

k. Injury monitoring and reduction:

i. Support, as appropriate, the development of systems to monitor the

incidence and cause of injury to allow well-targeted intervention/prevention

strategies;

ii. Develop, in accordance with national plans, strategies in all sectors

(industry, traffic and others) consistent with t he WHO safe cities and safe

communities programmes, to reduce the frequency and severity of injury;

iii. Emphasize preventive strategies to reduce occupationally derived diseases

and diseases caused by environmental and occupational toxins to enhance

worker safety;

l. Research promotion and methodology development:

i. Support the development of new methods for the quantitative assessment of

health benefits and cost associated with different pollution control

strategies;

ii. Develop and carry out interdisciplinary research on the combined health

effects of exposure to multiple environmental hazards, including

epidemiological investigations of long-term exposures to low levels of

pollutants and the use of biological markers capable of estimating human

exposures, adverse effects and susceptibility to environmental agents.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

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6.42. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $3 billion, including about $115 million

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and

programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

6.43. Although technology to prevent or abate pollution is readily available for a large number of

problems, for programme and policy development countries should undertake research within an

intersectoral framework. Such efforts should include collaboration with the business sector. Cost/effect

analysis and environmental impact assessment methods should be developed through cooperative

international programmes and applied to the setting of priorities and strategies in relation to health and

development.

6.44. In the activities listed in paragraph 6.41 (a) to (m) above, developing country efforts should be

facilitated by access to and transfer of technology, know-how and information, from the repositories of

such knowledge and technologies, in conformity with chapter 34.

(c) Human resource development

6.45. Comprehensive national strategies should be designed to overcome the lack of qualified human

resources, which is a major impediment to progress in dealing with environmental health hazards.

Training should include environmental and health officials at all levels from managers to inspect ors.

More emphasis needs to be placed on including the subject of environmental health in the curricula of

secondary schools and universities and on educating the public.

(d) Capacity-building

6.46. Each country should develop the knowledge and practical skills to foresee and identify

environmental health hazards, and the capacity to reduce the risks. Basic capacity requirements must

include knowledge about environmental health problems and awareness on the part of leaders, citizens

and specialists; operational mechanisms for intersectoral and intergovernmental cooperation in

development planning and management and in combating pollution; arrangements for involving

private and community interests in dealing with social issues; delegation of authority and distribution

of resources to intermediate and local levels of government to provide front-line capabilities to meet

environmental health needs.

Notes

1/ A/45/625, annex.

2/ Report of the WHO Commission on Health and Environment (Geneva, forthcoming).

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Agenda 21 – Chapter 7

PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HUMAN SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT

7.1. In industrialized countries, the consumption patterns of cities are severely stressing the global

ecosystem, while settlements in the developing world need more raw material, energy, and economic

development simply to overcome basic economic and social problems. Human settlement conditions

in many parts of the world, particularly the developing countries, are deteriorating mainly as a result of

the low levels of investment in the sector attributable to the overall resource constraints in these

countries. In the low-income countries for which recent data are available, an average of only 5.6 per

cent of central government expenditure went to housing, amenities, social security and welfare. 1/

Expenditure by international support and finance organizations is equally low. For example, only 1 per

cent of the United Nations system’s total grant-financed expenditures in 1988 went to human

settlements, 2/ while in 1991, loans from the World Bank and the International Development

Association (IDA) for urban development and water supply and sewerage amounted to 5.5 and 5.4 per

cent, respectively, of their total lending. 3/

7.2. On the other hand, available information indicates that technical cooperation activities in the human

settlement sector generate considerable public and private sector investment. For example, every

dollar of UNDP technical cooperation expenditure on human settlements in 1988 generated a follow- up investment of $122, t he highest of all UNDP sectors of assistance. 4/

7.3. This is the foundation of the “enabling approach” advocated for the human settlement sector. External

assistance will help to generate the internal resources needed to improve the living and working

environments of all people by the year 2000 and beyond, including the growing number of

unemployed – the no-income group. At the same time the environmental implications of urban

development should be recognized and addressed in an integrated fashion by all countries, with high

priority being given to the needs of the urban and rural poor, the unemployed and the growing number

of people without any source of income.

Human settlement objective

7.4. The overall human settlement objective is to improve the social, economic and environmental quality

of human settlements and the living and working environments of all people, in particular the urban

and rural poor. Such improvement should be based on technical cooperation activities, partnerships

among the public, private and community sectors and participation in the decision-making process by

community groups and special interest groups such as women, indigenous people, the elderly and the

disabled. These approaches should form the core principles of national settlement strategies. In

developing these strategies, countries will need to set priorities among the eight programme areas in

this chapter in accordance with their national plans and objectives, taking fully into account their

social and cultural capabilities. Furthermore, countries should make appropriate provision to monitor

the impact of their strategies on marginalized and disenfranchised groups, with particular reference to

the needs of women.

7.5. The programme areas included in this chapter are:

a. Providing adequate shelter for all;

b. Improving human settlement management;

c. Promoting sustainable land-use planning and management;

d. Promoting the integrated provision of environmental infrastructure: water, sanitation,

drainage and solid-waste management;

e. Promoting sustainable energy and transport systems in human settlements;

f. Promoting human settlement planning and management in disaster-prone areas;

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g. Promoting sustainable construction industry activities;

h. Promoting human resource development and capacity-building for human settlement

development.

PROGRAMME AREAS

A. Providing adequate shelter for all

Basis for action

7.6. Access to safe and healthy shelter is essential to a person’s physical, psychological, social and

economic well-being and should be a fundamental part of national and international action. The right

to adequate housing as a basic human right is enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Despite this, it is estimated

that at the present time, at least 1 billion people do not have access to safe and healthy shelter and that

if appropriate action is not taken, this number will increase dramatically by the end of the century and

beyond.

7.7. A major global programme to address this problem is the Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000,

adopted by the General Assembly in December 1988 (resolution 43/181, annex). Despite its

widespread endorsement, the Strategy needs a much greater level of political and financial support to

enable it to reach its goal of facilitating adequate shelter for all by the end of the century and beyond.

Objective

7.8. The objective is to achieve adequate shelter for rapidly growing populations and for the currently

deprived urban and rural poor through an enabling approach to shelter development and improvement

that is environmentally sound.

Activities

7.9. The following activities should be undertaken:

a. As a first step towards the goal of providing adequate shelter for all, all countries should take

immediate measures to provide shelter to their homeless poor, while the international

community and financial institutions should undertake actions to support the efforts of the

developing countries to provide shelter to the poor;

b. All countries should adopt and/or strengthen national shelter strategies, with targets based, as

appropriate, on the principles and recommendations contained in the Global Strategy for

Shelter to the Year 2000. People should be protected by law against unfair eviction from their

homes or land;

c. All countries should, as appropriate, support the shelter efforts of the urban and rural poor, the

unemployed and the no-income group by adopting and/or adapting existing codes and

regulations, to facilitate their access to land, finance and low-cost building materials and by

actively promoting the regularization and upgrading of informal settlements and urban slums

as an expedient measure and pragmatic solution to the urban shelter deficit;

d. All countries should, as appropriate, facilitate access of urban and rural poor to shelter by

adopting and utilizing housing and finance schemes and new innovative mechanisms adapted

to their circumstances;

e. All countries should support and develop environmentally compatible shelter strategies at

national, state/provincial and municipal levels through partnerships among the private, public

and community sectors and with the support of community-based organizations;

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f. All countries, especially developing ones, should, as appropriate, formulate and implement

programmes to reduce the impact of the phenomenon of rural to urban drift by improving

rural living conditions;

g. All countries, where appropriate, should develop and implement resettlement programmes

that address the specific problems of displaced populations in their respective countries;

h. All countries should, as appropriate, document and monitor the implementation of their

national shelter strategies by using, inter alia, the monitoring guidelines adopted by the

Commission on Human Settlements and the shelter performance indicators being produced

jointly by the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) and the World Bank;

i. Bilateral and multilateral cooperation should be strengthened in order to support the

implementation of the national shelter strategies of developing countries;

j. Global progress reports covering national action and the support activities of international

organizations and bilateral donors should be produced and disseminated on a biennial basis,

as requested in the Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

7.10. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $75 billion, including about $10 billion

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and

programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

7.11. The requirements under this heading are addressed in each of the other programme areas included

in the present chapter.

(c) Human resource development and capacity-building

7.12. Developed countries and funding agencies should provide specific assistance to developing

countries in adopting an enabling approach to the provision of shelter for all, including the no-income

group, and covering research institutions and training activities for government officials, professionals,

communities and non-governmental organizations and by strengthening local capacity for the

development of appropriate technologies.

B. Improving human settlement management

Basis for action

7.13. By the turn of the century, the majority of the world’s population will be living in cities. While

urban settlements, particularly in developing countries, are showing many of the symptoms of the

global environment and development crisis, they nevertheless generate 60 per cent of gross national

product and, if properly managed, can develop the capacity to sustain their productivity, improve the

living conditions of their residents and manage natural resources in a sustainable way.

7.14. Some metropolitan areas extend over the boundaries of several political and/or administrative

entities (counties and municipalities) even though they conform to a continuous urban system. In many

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cases this political heterogeneity hinders the implementation of comprehensive environmental

management programmes.

Objective

7.15. The objective is to ensure sustainable management of all urban settlements, particularly in

developing countries, in order to enhance their ability to improve the living conditions of residents,

especially the marginalized and disenfranchised, thereby contributing to the achievement of national

economic development goals.

Activities

(a) Improving urban management

7.16. One existing framework for strengthening management is in the United Nations Development

Programme/World Bank/United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) Urban Management

Programme (UMP), a concerted global effort to assist developing countries in addressing urban

management issues. Its coverage should be extended to all interested countries during the period 1993-

2000. All countries should, as appropriate and in accordance with national plans, objectives and

priorities and with the assistance of non-governmental organizations and representatives of local

authorities, undertake the following activities at the national, state/provincial and local levels, with the

assistance of relevant programmes and support agencies:

a. Adopting and applying urban management guidelines in the areas of land management,

urban environmental management, infrastructure management and municipal finance and

administration;

b. Accelerating efforts to reduce urban poverty through a number of actions, including:

i. Generating employment for the urban poor, particularly women, through the

provision, improvement and maintenance of urban infrastructure and services

and the support of economic activities in the informal sector, such as repairs,

recycling, services and small commerce;

ii. Providing specific assistance to the poorest of the urban poor through, inter alia,

the creation of social infrastructure in order to reduce hunger and homelessness,

and the provision of adequate community services;

iii. Encouraging the establishment of indigenous community-based organizations,

private voluntary organizations and other forms of non-governmental entities

that can contribute to the efforts to reduce poverty and improve the quality of

life for low-income families;

c. Adopting innovative city planning strategies to address environmental and social issues

by:

i. Reducing subsidies on, and recovering the full costs of, environmental and other

services of high standard (e.g. water supply, sanitation, waste collection, roads,

telecommunications) provided to higher income neighbourhoods;

ii. Improving the level of infrastructure and service provision in poorer urban

areas;

d. Developing local strategies for improving the quality of life and the environment,

integrating decisions on land use and land management, investing in the public and

private sectors and mobilizing human and material resources, thereby promoting

employment generation that is environmentally sound and protective of human health.

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(b) Strengthening urban data systems

7.17. During the period 1993-2000 all countries should undertake, with the active participation of the

business sector as appropriate, pilot projects in selected cities for the collection, analysis and

subsequent dissemination of urban data, including environmental impact analysis, at the local,

state/provincial, national and international levels and the establishment of city data management

capabilities. 5/ United Nations organizations, such as Habitat, UNEP and UNDP, could provide

technical advice and model data management systems.

(c) Encouraging int ermediate city development

7.18. In order to relieve pressure on large urban agglomerations of developing countries, policies and

strategies should be implemented towards the development of intermediate cities that create

employment opportunities for unemployed labour in the rural areas and support rural-based economic

activities, although sound urban management is essential to ensure that urban sprawl does not expand

resource degradation over an ever wider land area and increase pressures to convert open space and

agricultural/buffer lands for development.

7.19. Therefore all countries should, as appropriate, conduct reviews of urbanization processes and

policies in order to assess the environmental impacts of growth and apply urban planning and

management approaches specifically suited to the needs, resource capabilities and characteristics of

their growing intermediate-sized cities. As appropriate, they should also concentrate on activities

aimed at facilitating the transition from rural to urban lifestyles and settlement patterns and at

promoting the development of small-scale economic activities, particularly the production of food, to

support local income generation and the production of intermediate goods and services for rural

hinterlands.

7.20. All cities, particularly those characterized by severe sustainable development problems, should, in

accordance with national laws, rules and regulations, develop and strengthen programmes aimed at

addressing such problems and guiding their development along a sustainable path. Some international

initiatives in support of such efforts, as in the Sustainable Cities Programme of Habitat and the

Healthy Cities Programme of WHO, should be intensified. Additional initiatives involving the World

Bank, the regional development banks and bilateral agencies, as well as other interested stakeholders,

particularly international and national representatives of local authorities, should be strengthened and

coordinated. Individual cities should, as appropriate:

a. Institutionalize a participatory approach to sustainable urban development, based on

a continuous dialogue between the actors involved in urban development (the public

sector, private sector and communities), especially women and indigenous people;

b. Improve the urban environment by promoting social organization and environmental

awareness through the participation of local communities in the identification of

public services needs, the provision of urban infrastructure, the enhancement of

public amenities and the protection and/or rehabilitation of older buildings, historic

precincts and other cultural artifacts. In addition, “green works” programmes should

be activated to create self-sustaining human development activities and both formal

and informal employment opportunities for low-income urban residents;

c. Strengthen the capacities of their local governing bodies to deal more effectively

with the broad range of developmental and environmental challenges associated with

rapid and sound urban growth through comprehensive approaches to planning that

recognize the individual needs of cities and are based on ecologically sound urban

design practices;

d. Participate in international “sustainable city networks” to exchange experiences and

mobilize national and international technical and financial support;

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e. Promote the formulation of environmentally sound and culturally sensitive tourism

programmes as a strategy for sustainable development of urban and rural settlements

and as a way of decentralizing urban development and reducing discrepancies among

regions;

f. Establish mechanisms, with the assistance of relevant international agencies, to

mobilize resources for local initiatives to improve environmental quality;

g. Empower community groups, non-governmental organizations and individuals to

assume the authority and responsibility for managing and enhancing their immediate

environment through participatory tools, techniques and approaches embodied in the

concept of environmental care.

7.21. Cities of all countries should reinforce cooperation among themselves and cities of the developed

countries, under the aegis of non-governmental organizations active in this field, such as the

International Union of Local Authorities (IULA), the International Council for Local Environmental

Initiatives (ICLEI) and the World Federation of Twin Cities.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

7.22. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $100 billion, including about $15 billion

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and

programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Human resource development and capacity-building

7.23. Developing countries should, with appropriate international assistance, consider focusing on

training and developing a cadre of urban managers, technicians, administrators and other relevant

stakeholders who can successfully manage environmentally sound urban development and growth and

are equipped with the skills necessary to analyse and adapt the innovative experiences of other cities.

For this purpose, the full range of training methods – from formal education to the use of the mass

media – should be utilized, as well as the “learning by doing” option.

7.24. Developing countries should also encourage technological training and research through joint

efforts by donors, non-governmental organizations and private business in such areas as the reduction

of waste, water quality, saving of energy, safe production of chemicals and less polluting

transportation.

7.25. Capacity-building activities carried out by all countries, assisted as suggested above, should go

beyond the training of individuals and functional groups to include institutional arrangements,

administrative routines, inter-agency linkages, information flows and consultative processes.

7.26. In addition, international efforts, such as the Urban Management Programme, in cooperation with

multilateral and bilateral agencies, should continue to assist the developing countries in their efforts to

develop a participatory structure by mobilizing the human resources of the private sector, non- governmental organizations and the poor, particularly women and the disadvantaged.

C. Promoting sustainable land-use planning and management

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7.27. Access to land resources is an essential component of sustainable low-impact lifestyles. Land

resources are the basis for (human) living systems and provide soil, energy, water and the opportunity

for all human activity. In rapidly growing urban areas, access to land is rendered increasingly difficult

by the conflicting demands of industry, housing, commerce, agriculture, land tenure structures and the

need for open spaces. Furthermore, the rising costs of urban land prevent the poor from gaining access

to suitable land. In rural areas, unsustainable practices, such as the exploitation of marginal lands and

the encroachment on forests and ecologically fragile areas by commercial interests and landless rural

populations, result in environmental degradation, as well as in diminishing returns for impoverished

rural settlers.

Objective

7.28. The objective is to provide for the land requirements of human settlement development through

environmentally sound physical planning and land use so as to ensure access to land to all households

and, where appropriate, the encouragement of communally and collectively owned and managed land.

6/ Particular attention should be paid to the needs of women and indigenous people for economic and

cultural reasons.

Activi ties

7.29. All countries should consider, as appropriate, undertaking a comprehensive national inventory of

their land resources in order to establish a land information system in which land resources will be

classified according to their most appropriate uses and environmentally fragile or disaster-prone areas

will be identified for special protection measures.

7.30. Subsequently, all countries should consider developing national land-resource management plans

to guide land-resource development and utilization and, to that end, should:

a. Establish, as appropriate, national legislation to guide the implementation of public

policies for environmentally sound urban development, land utilization, housing and for

the improved management of urban expansion;

b. Create, where appropriate, efficient and accessible land markets that meet community

development needs by, inter alia, improving land registry systems and streamlining

procedures in land transactions;

c. Develop fiscal incentives and land-use control measures, including land-use planning

solutions for a more rational and environmentally sound use of limited land resources;

d. Encourage partnerships among the public, private and community sectors in managing

land resources for human settlements development;

e. Strengthen community-based land-resource protection practices in existing urban and

rural settlements;

f. Establish appropriate forms of land tenure that provide security of tenure for all land- users, especially indigenous people, women, local communities, the low-income urban

dwellers and the rural poor;

g. Accelerate efforts to promote access to land by the urban and rural poor, including credit

schemes for the purchase of land and for building/acquiring or improving safe and

healthy shelter and infrastructure services;

h. Develop and support the implementation of improved land-management practices that

deal comprehensively with potentially competing land requirements for agriculture,

industry, transport, urban development, green spaces, preserves and other vital needs;

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i. Promote understanding among policy makers of the adverse consequences of unplanned

settlements in environmentally vulnerable areas and of the appropriate national and local

land-use and settlements policies required for this purpose.

7.31. At the international level, global coordination of land-resource management activities should be

strengthened by the various bilateral and multilateral agencies and programmes, such as UNDP, FAO,

the World Bank, the regional development banks, other interested organizations and the UNDP/World

Bank/Habitat Urban Management Programme, and action should be taken to promote the transfer of

applicable experience on sustainable land-management practices to and among developing countries.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

7.32. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $3 billion, including about $300 million

from the international community on grant or concessional t erms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and

programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

7.33. All countries, particularly developing countries, alone or in regional or subregional groupings,

should be given access to modern techniques of land-resource management, such as geographical

information systems, satellite photography/imagery and other remote-sensing technologies.

(c) Human resource development and capacity-building

7.34. Environmentally focused training activities in sustainable land-resources planning and

management should be undertaken in all countries, with developing countries being given assistance

through international support and funding agencies in order to:

a. Strengthen the capacity of national, state/provincial and local educational research and

training institutions to provide formal training of land-management technicians and

professionals;

b. Facilitate the organizational review of government ministries and agencies responsible

for land questions, in order to devise more efficient mechanisms of land-resource

management, and carry out periodic in-service refresher courses for the managers and

staff of such ministries and agencies in order to familiarize them with up-to-date land- resource-management technologies;

c. Where appropriate, provide such agencies with modern equipment, such as computer

hardware and software and survey equipment;

d. Strengthen existing programmes and promote an international and interregional exchange

of information and experience in land management through the establishment of

professional associations in land-management sciences and related activities, such as

workshops and seminars.

D. Promoting the integrated provision of environmental infrastructure: water, sanitation, drainage

and solid-waste management

Basis for action

7.35. The sustainability of urban development is defined by many parameters relating to the availability

of water supplies, air quality and the provision of environmental infrastructure for sanitation and waste

management. As a result of the density of users, urbanization, if properly managed, offers unique

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opportunities for the supply of sustainable environmental infrastructure through adequate pricing

policies, educational programmes and equitable access mechanisms that are economically and

environmentally sound. In most developing countries, however, the inadequacy and lack of

environmental infrastructure is responsible for widespread ill-health and a large number of preventable

deaths each year. In those countries conditions are set to worsen due to growing needs that exceed the

capacity of Governments to respond adequately.

7.36. An integrated approach to the provision of environmentally sound infrastructure in human

settlements, in particular for the urban and rural poor, is an investment in sustainable development that

can improve the quality of life, increase productivity, improve health and reduce the burden of

investments in curative medicine and poverty alleviation.

7.37. Most of the activities whose management would be improved by an integrated approach, are

covered in Agenda 21 as follows: chapter 6 (Protecting and promoting human health conditions),

chapters 9 (Protecting the atmosphere), 18 (Protecting the quality and supply of freshwater resources)

and 21 (Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues).

Objective

7.38. The objective is to ensure the provision of adequate environmental infrastructure facilities in all

settlements by the year 2025. The achievement of this objective would require that all developing

countries incorporate in their national strategies programmes to build the necessary technical, financial

and human resource capacity aimed at ensuring better integration of infrastructure and environmental

planning by the year 2000.

Activities

7.39. All countries should assess the environmental suitability of infrastructure in human settlements,

develop national goals for sustainable management of waste, and implement environmentally sound

technology to ensure that the environment, human health and quality of life are protected. Settlement

infrastructure and environmental programmes designed to promote an integrated human settlements

approach to the planning, development, maintenance and management of environmental infrastructure

(water supply, sanitation, drainage, solid-waste management) should be strengthened with the

assistance of bilateral and multilateral agencies. Coordination among these agencies and with

collaboration from international and national representatives of local authorities, the private sector and

community groups should also be strengthened. The activities of all agencies engaged in providing

environmental infrastructure should, where possible, reflect an ecosystem or metropolitan area

approach to settlements and should include monitoring, applied research, capacity-building, transfer of

appropriate technology and technical cooperation among the range of programme activities.

7.40. Developing countries should be assisted at the national and local levels in adopting an integrated

approach to the provision of water supply, energy, sanitation, drainage and solid-waste management,

and external funding agencies should ensure that this approach is applied in particular to

environmental infrastructure improvement in informal settlements based on regulations and standards

that take into account the living conditions and resources of the communities to be served.

7.41. All countries should, as appropriate, adopt the following principles for the provision of

environmental infrastructure:

a. Adopt policies that minimize if not altogether avoid environmental damage, whenever

possible;

b. Ensure that relevant decisions are preceded by environmental impact assessments and

also take into account the costs of any ecological consequences;

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c. Promote development in accordance with indigenous practices and adopt technologies

appropriate to local conditions;

d. Promote policies aimed at recovering the actual cost of infrastructure services, while at

the same time recognizing the need to find suitable approaches (including subsidies) to

extend basic services to all households;

e. Seek joint solutions to environmental problems that affect several localities.

7.42. The dissemination of information from existing programmes should be facilitated and encouraged

among interested countries and local institutions.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

7.43. The Conference secretariat has estimated most of the costs of implementing the activities of this

programme in other chapters. The secretariat estimates the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

technical assistance from the international community grant or concessional terms to be about $50

million. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by

Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend

upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

7.44. Scientific and technological means within the existing programmes should be coordinated

wherever possible and should:

a. Accelerate research in the area of integrated policies of environmental infrastructure

programmes and projects based on cost/benefit analysis and overall environmental

impact;

b. Promote methods of assessing “effective demand”, utilizing environment and

development data as criteria for selecting technology.

(c) Human resource development and capacity-building

7.45. With the assistance and support of funding agencies, all countries should, as appropriate,

undertake training and popular participation programmes aimed at:

a. Raising awareness of the means, approaches and benefits of the provision of

environmental infrastructure facilities, especially among indigenous people, women, low- income groups and the poor;

b. Developing a cadre of professionals with adequate skills in integrated infrastructural

service planning and maintenance of resource-efficient, environmentally sound and

socially acceptable systems;

c. Strengthening the institutional capacity of local authorities and administrators in the

integrated provision of adequate infrastructure services in partnership with local

communities and the private sector;

d. Adopting appropriate legal and regulatory instruments, including cross-subsidy

arrangements, to extend the benefits of adequate and affordable environmental

infrastructure to unserved population groups, especially the poor.

E. Promoting sustainable energy and transport systems in human settlements

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Basis for action

7.46. Most of the commercial and non-commercial energy produced today is used in and for human

settlements, and a substantial percentage of it is used by the household sector. Developing countries

are at present faced with the need to increase their energy production to accelerate development and

raise the living standards of their populations, while at the same time reducing energy production costs

and energy -related pollution. Increasing the efficiency of energy use to reduce its polluting effects and

to promote the use of renewable energies must be a priority in any action taken to protect the urban

environment.

7.47. Developed countries, as the largest consumers of energy, are faced with the need for energy

planning and management, promoting renewable and alternate sources of energy, and evaluating the

life-cycle costs of current systems and practices as a result of which many metropolitan areas are

suffering from pervasive air quality problems related to ozone, particulate matters and carbon

monoxide. The causes have much to do with technological inadequacies and with an increasing fuel

consumption generated by inefficiencies, high demographic and industrial concentrations and a rapid

expansion in the number of motor vehicles.

7.48. Transport accounts for about 30 per cent of commercial energy consumption and for about 60 per

cent of total global consumption of liquid petroleum. In developing countries, rapid motorization and

insufficient investments in urban-transport planning, traffic management and infrastructure, are

creating increasing problems in terms of accidents and injury, health, noise, congestion and loss of

productivity similar to those occurring in many developed countries. All of these problems have a

severe impact on urban populations, particularly the low-income and no-income groups.

Objectives

7.49. The objectives are to extend the provision of more energy-efficient technology and

alternative/renewable energy for human settlements and to reduce negative impacts of energy

production and use on human health and on the environment.

Activities

7.50. The principal activities relevant to this programme area are included in chapter 9 (Protection of the

atmosphere), programme area B, subprogramme 1 (Energy development, efficiency and consumption)

and subprogramme 2 (Transportation).

7.51. A comprehensive approach to human settlements development should include the promotion of

sustainable energy development in all countries, as follows:

a. Developing countries, in particular, should:

i. Formulate national action programmes to promote and support

reafforestation and national forest regeneration with a view to achieving

sustained provision of the biomass energy needs of the low-income groups

in urban areas and the rural poor, in particular women and children;

ii. Formulate national action programmes to promote integrated development

of energy-saving and renewable energy technologies, particularly for the

use of solar, hydro, wind and biomass sources;

iii. Promote wide dissemination and commercialization of renewable energy

technologies through suitable measures, inter alia, fiscal and technology

transfer mechanisms;

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iv. Carry out information and training programmes directed at manufacturers

and users in order to promote energy -saving techniques and energy -efficient

appliances;

b. International organizations and bilateral donors should:

i. Support developing countries in implementing national energy programmes

in order to achieve widespread use of energy -saving and renewable energy

technologies, particularly the use of solar, wind, biomass and hydro sources;

ii. Provide access to research and development results to increase energy-use

efficiency levels in human settlements.

7.52. Promoting efficient and environmentally sound urban transport systems in all countries should be

a comprehensive approach to urban-transport planning and management. To this end, all countries

should:

a. Integrate land-use and transportation planning to encourage development patterns

that reduce transport demand;

b. Adopt urban-transport programmes favouring high-occupancy public transport in

countries, as appropriate;

c. Encourage non-motorized modes of transport by providing safe cycleways and

footways in urban and suburban centres in countries, as appropriate;

d. Devote particular attention to effective traffic management, efficient operation of

public transport and maintenance of transport infrastructure;

e. Promote the exchange of information among countries and representatives of local

and metropolitan areas;

f. Re-evaluate the present consumption and production patterns in order to reduce the

use of energy and national resources.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

7.53. The Conference secretariat has estimated the costs of implementing the activities of this

programme in chapter 9 (Protection of the atmosphere).

(b) Human resource development and capacity-building

7.54. In order to enhance the skills of energy service and transport professionals and institutions, all

countries should, as appropriate:

a. Provide on-the-job and other training of government officials, planners, traffic

engineers and managers involved in the energy -service and transport section;

b. Raise public awareness of the environmental impacts of transport and travel

behaviour through mass media campaigns and support for non-governmental and

community initiatives promoting the use of non-motorized transport, shared driving

and improved traffic safety measures;

c. Strengthen regional, national, state/provincial, and private sector institutions that

provide education and training on energy service and urban transport planning and

management.

F. Promoting human settlement planning and management in disaster-prone areas

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Basis for action

7.55. Natural disasters cause loss of life, disruption of economic activities and urban productivity,

particularly for highly susceptible low-income groups, and environmental damage, such as loss of

fertile agricultural land and contamination of water resources, and can lead to major resettlement of

populations. Over the past two decades, they are estimated to have caused some 3 million deaths and

affected 800 million people. Global economic losses have been estimated by the Office of the United

Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator to be in the range of $30-50 billion per year.

7.56. The General Assembly, in resolution 44/236, proclaimed the 1990s as the International Decade for

Natural Disaster Reduction. The goals of the Decade 7/ bear relevance to the objectives of the present

programme area.

7.57. In addition, there is an urgent need to address the prevention and reduction of man-made disasters

and/or disasters caused by, inter alia, industries, unsafe nuclear power generation and toxic wastes (see

chapter 6 of Agenda 21).

Objective

7.58. The objective is to enable all countries, in particular those that are disaster-prone, to mitigate the

negative impact of natural and man-made disasters on human settlements, national economies and the

environment.

Activities

7.59. Three distinct areas of activity are foreseen under this programme area, namely, the development

of a “culture of safety”, pre-disaster planning and post-disaster reconstruction.

(a) Developing a culture of safety

7.60. To promote a “culture of safety” in all countries, especially those that are disaster-prone, the

following activities should be carried out:

a. Completing national and local studies on the nature and occurrence of natural

disasters, their impact on people and economic activities, the effects of inadequate

construction and land use in hazard-prone areas, and the social and economic

advantages of adequate pre-disaster planning;

b. Implementing nationwide and local awareness campaigns through all available

media, translating the above knowledge into information easily comprehensible to

the general public and to the populations directly exposed to hazards;

c. Strengthening, and/or developing global, regional, national and local early warning

systems to alert populations to impending disasters;

d. Identifying industrially based environmental disaster areas at the national and

international levels and implementing strategies aimed at the rehabilitation of these

areas through, inter alia:

i. Restructuring of the economic activities and promoting new job

opportunities in environmentally sound sectors;

ii. Promoting close collaboration between governmental and local authorities,

local communities and non-governmental organizations and private

business;

iii. Developing and enforcing strict environmental control standards.

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(b) Developing pre-disaster planning

7.61. Pre-disaster planning should form an integral part of human settlement planning in all countries.

The following should be included:

a. Undertaking complete multi-hazard research into risk and vulnerability of human

settlements and settlement infrastructure, including water and sewerage,

communication and transportation networks, as one type of risk reduction may

increase vulnerability to another (e.g., an earthquake-resistant house made of wood

will be more vulnerable to wind storms);

b. Developing methodologies for determining risk and vulnerability within specific

human settlements and incorporating risk and vulnerability reduction into the human

settlement planning and management process;

c. Redirecting inappropriate new development and human settlements to areas not

prone to hazards;

d. Preparing guidelines on location, design and operation of potentially hazardous

industries and activities;

e. Developing tools (legal, economic etc.) to encourage disaster-sensitive development,

including means of ensuring that limitations on development options are not punitive

to owners, or incorporate alternative means of compensation;

f. Further developing and disseminating information on disaster-resistant building

materials and construction technologies for buildings and public works in general;

g. Developing training programmes for contractors and builders on disaster-resistant

construction methods. Some programmes should be directed particularly to small

enterprises, which build the great majority of housing and other small buildings in

the developing countries, as well as to the rural populations, which build their own

houses;

h. Developing training programmes for emergency site managers, non-governmental

organizations and community groups which cover all aspects of disaster mitigation,

including urban search and rescue, emergency communications, early warning

techniques, and pre-disaster planning;

i. Developing procedures and practices to enable local communities to receive

information about hazardous installations or situations in these areas, and facilitate

their participation in early warning and disaster abatement and response procedures

and plans;

j. Preparing action plans for the reconstruction of settlements, especially the

reconstruction of community life-lines.

(c) Initiating post-disaster reconstruction and rehabilitation planning

7.62. The international community, as a major partner in post-reconstruction and rehabilitation, should

ensure that the countries involved derive the greatest benefits from the funds allocated by undertaking

the following activities:

a. Carrying out research on past experiences on the social and economic aspects of

post-disaster reconstruction and adopting effective strategies and guidelines for post- disaster reconstruction, with particular focus on development-focused strategies in

the allocation of scarce reconstruction resources, and on the opportunities that post- disaster reconstruction provides to introduce sustainable settlement patterns;

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b. Preparing and disseminating international guidelines for adaptation to national and

local needs;

c. Supporting efforts of national Governments to initiate contingency planning, with

participation of affected communities, for post-disaster reconstruction and

rehabilitation.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

7.63. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $50 million from the international

community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates

only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that

are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes

Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

7.64. Scientists and engineers specializing in this field in both developing and developed countries

should collaborate with urban and regional planners in order to provide the basic knowledge and

means to mitigate losses owing to disasters as well as environmentally inappropriate development.

(c) Human resource development and capacity-building

7.65. Developing countries should conduct training programmes on disaster-resistant construction

methods for contractors and builders, who build the majority of housing in the developing countries.

This should focus on the small business enterprises, which build the majority of housing in the

developing countries.

7.66. Training programmes should be extended to government officials and planners and community

and non-governmental organizations to cover all aspects of disaster mitigation, such as early warning

techniques, pre-disaster planning and construction, post-disaster construction and rehabilitation.

G. Promoting sustainable construction industry activities

Basis for action

7.67. The activities of the construction sector are vital to the achievement of the national socio- economic development goals of providing shelter, infrastructure and employment. However, they can

be a major source of environmental damage through depletion of the natural resource base,

degradation of fragile eco-zones, chemical pollution and the use of building materials harmful to

human health.

Objectives

7.68. The objectives are, first, to adopt policies and technologies and to exchange information on them

in order to enable the construction sector to meet human settlement development goals, while avoiding

harmful side-effects on human health and on the biosphere, and, second, to enhance the employment- generation capacity of the construction sector. Governments should work in close collaboration with

the private sector in achieving these objectives.

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Activities

7.69. All countries should, as appropriate and in accordance with national plans, objectives and

priorities:

a. Establish and strengthen indigenous building materials industry, based, as much as

possible, on inputs of locally available natural resources;

b. Formulate programmes to enhance the utilization of local materials by the construction

sector by expanding technical support and incentive schemes for increasing the

capabilities and economic viability of small-scale and informal operatives which make

use of these materials and traditional construction techniques;

c. Adopt standards and other regulatory measures which promote the increased use of

energy -efficient designs and technologies and sustainable utilization of natural resources

in an economically and environmentally appropriate way;

d. Formulate appropriate land-use policies and introduce planning regulations specially

aimed at the protection of eco-sensitive zones against physical disruption by construction

and construction-related activities;

e. Promote the use of labour-intensive construction and maintenance technologies which

generate employment in the construction sector for the underemployed labour force

found in most large cities, while at the same time promoting the development of skills in

the construction sector;

f. Develop policies and practices to reach the informal sector and self-help housing builders

by adopting measures to increase the affordability of building materials on the part of the

urban and rural poor, through, inter alia, credit schemes and bulk procurement of building

materials for sale to small-scale builders and communities.

7.70. All countries should:

a. Promote the free exchange of information on the entire range of environmental and health

aspects of construction, including the development and dissemination of databases on the

adverse environmental effects of building materials through the collaborative efforts of

the private and public sectors;

b. Promote the development and dissemination of databases on the adverse environmental

and health effects of building materials and introduce legislation and financial incentives

to promote recycling of energy -intensive materials in the construction industry and

conservation of waste energy in building-materials production methods;

c. Promote the use of economic instruments, such as product charges, to discourage the use

of construction materials and products that create pollution during their life cycle;

d. Promote information exchange and appropriate technology transfer among all countries,

with particular attention to developing countries, for resource management in

construction, particularly for non-renewable resources;

e. Promote research in construction industries and related activities, and establish and

strengthen institutions in this sector.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

7.71. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $40 billion, including about $4 billion from

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the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and

programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Human resource development and capacity-building

7.72. Developing countries should be assisted by international support and funding agencies in

upgrading the technical and managerial capacities of the small entrepreneur and the vocational skills

of operatives and supervisors in the building materials industry, using a variety of training methods.

These countries should also be assisted in developing programmes to encourage the use of non-waste

and clean technologies through appropriate transfer of technology.

7.73. General education programmes should be developed in all countries, as appropriate, to increase

builder awareness of available sustainable technologies.

7.74. Local authorities are called upon to play a pioneering role in promoting the increased use of

environmentally sound building materials and construction technologies, e.g., by pursuing an

innovative procurement policy.

H. Promoting human resource development and capacity-building for human settlements

development

Basis for action

7.75. Most countries, in addition to shortcomings in the availability of specialized expertise in the areas

of housing, settlement management, land management, infrastructure, construction, energy, transport,

and pre-disaster planning and reconstruction, face three cross-sectoral human resource development

and capacity-building shortfalls. First is the absence of an enabling policy environment capable of

integrating the resources and activities of the public sector, the private sector and the community, or

social sector; second is the weakness of specialized training and research institutions; and third is the

insufficient capacity for technical training and assistance for low-income communities, both urban and

rural.

Objective

7.76. The objective is to improve human resource development and capacity-building in all countries by

enhancing the personal and institutional capacity of all actors, particularly indigenous people and

women, involved in human settlement development. In this regard, account should be taken of

traditional cultural practices of indigenous people and their relationship to the environment.

Activities

7.77. Specific human resource development and capacity-building activities have been built into each of

the programme areas of this chapter. More generally, however, additional steps should be taken to

reinforce those activities. In order to do so, all countries, as appropriate, should take the following

action:

a. Strengthening the development of human resources and of capacities of public sector

institutions through technical assistance and international cooperation so as to

achieve by the year 2000 substantial improvement in the efficiency of governmental

activities;